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Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South 


Sara Estelle Haskin 

Educational Secretary , Woman s Missionary 
Council, M. E. Church, South 

Nashville, Term." 

Dallas, Tex.; Richmond, Va. 

Publishing House of the M. E. Church, South 

Smith & Lamar, Agents 






The Missionaries and Deaconesses who have stood in the 

front of the battle line this book is lovingly 

and gratefully dedicated 


IN the following pages the author has set 
forth merely the outstanding facts in the his 
tory of the organized woman s missionary 
work in the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South. The great underlying purpose, how 
ever, has been to state these facts in such a 
way that they themselves will tell the story of 
God s marvelous leading through the years. 

The vision of service came first to a small 
group of women without means, without ex 
perience, and with no authorized channel 
through which to work; but in less than fifty 
years their prayers and their small efforts had 
resulted in the enlistment of over two hundred 
thousand women and children in the auxiliaries 
of the Woman s Missionary Society. The ap 
peal of one small school in China and the cry 
of distress sent out in behalf of the poorly 
paid preachers on the frontier resulted in an 
organization which in 1920 was conducting 
well-equipped schools and social-evangelistic 
centers in the homeland and in seven foreign 
mission fields. 



The work in the homeland and that in the 
foreign fields began through separate organ 
izations, but as the years passed the vision 
broadened until the world became one great 
mission field for which every auxiliary member 
was personally responsible. The result was 
the merging of the two societies and a united 
effort in prayer and giving. 

It is the earnest hope of the author that this 
story may fill the heart of every woman who 
reads it with gratitude to God for the great 
pioneer women who have made it possible for 
us of the present day to enter into our won 
derful heritage of world-wide service. 

The story of the work as told in these pages 
has been gathered from the following sources : 
The Annual Reports of the Woman s Foreign 
Missionary Society ; the Annual Reports of the 
Woman s Home Mission Society; the Annual 
Reports of the Woman s Missionary Council ; 
the "History of the Woman s Foreign Mis 
sionary Society," by Mrs. F. A. Butler; the 
"Life of Miss Lucinda B. Helm," by Mrs. 
Gross Alexander; and "A Decade of Mission 
Life," by Miss Nannie E. Holding; also 
pamphlets entitled "The Story of the Years," 
bv Mrs. R. W. MacDonell, Mrs. F. H. E. Ross, 


Mrs. J. B. Cobb, Miss Maria Layng Gibson, 
and Miss Maude Bonnell. From these last, 
entire sections have been occasionally em 

Grateful acknowledgment is hereby made to 
my friends Miss Belle H. Bennett, Miss 
Maria Layng Gibson, and Mrs. R. W. Mac- 
Donell, who, from the knowledge gained by 
their years of experience, have rendered most 
valuable assistance. Thanks are also due to 
those of my associate workers who have read 
the manuscript and rendered helpful and sym 
pathetic criticism. S. E. H. 



I. Banding together for Service 13 


II. The First Mission Fields 43 

V-III. Lighting the Torch in Korea 75 

IV. Another Call 95 



V. Another Challenge to Faith 109 

VI. Answering a Neighbor s Need 134 

VII. A New Campaign 161 

VIII. Occupying a Waiting Field 167 


IX. Answering the Home Call 177 

X. A Work of Social Evangelism 199 



XL Scarritt Bible and Training School 231 




When you pray the Lord s Prayer, for what do you 
pray? For my daily bread, forgiveness of my sins? 
Have you shut the door to shut the world out and be 
alone with God? But Jesus taught us to pray "Our 
Father." It is a collective prayer. With the first word 
it is no longer an experience of the soul alone with 
God the thronging hosts of humanity are present in 
the room. The need of others for bread takes place 
alongside of our hunger ; the passionate desires of 
others to be released from the pressure of evil stand 
beside our desire to be forgiven for our sins. It is a 
prayer of humanity for humanity and for the individual 
only as a part of humanity. From "Christianising 
Community Life," by Ward-Edwards. 



THE heroic women who laid the founda 
tions of the woman s missionary work in the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, were pio 
neers in the faith, leading the generations to 
follow into fields of service and conquest. As 
is always true in any great enterprise, the be 
ginnings of their work can be traced back to a 
vision and purpose born in the hearts of a few 
chosen of God. 

The First Auxiliary. 

The earliest authentic record indicates that 
the first effort to organize and project in the 
South any form of missionary work for wom 
en was undertaken in 1858 by Mrs. M. L. Kel- 
ley. She was the wife of an itinerant preacher, 
the Rev. John Kelley, at that time located at 
Bethlehem, Tenn., Lebanon Circuit. The rec 
ords show that a missionary society was or 
ganized and aid sent to Mrs. J. W. Lambuth 
for the maintenance of a school she was con- 



ducting in Shanghai, China. Two years later 
the Civil War broke out, and this initial ef 
fort seemed lost in the great catastrophe that 
followed. But the missionary zeal in the 
heart of this woman could not be quenched, 
for after fourteen years had passed we find 
her living in Nashville, Tenn., and with re 
newed effort seeking to make her vision of 
service a reality. Her son, Rev. D. C. Kelley, 
D.D., says in speaking of this new society: 
"In the fall of 1872 the work of canvassing 
had begun. A good deal of private effort had 
been made, and meetings had been called in 
the various churches of the city. The first 
meeting of the women \vas on a cold day in 
November, 1873. The picture is still vivid of 
the four women who that day came together, 
the result of much personal effort by Mrs. Kel 
ley and repeated notices from the pulpit by 
the pastor of McKendree Church. They sat 
on the ends of the four pews nearest the reg 
ister on the western side of old McKendree 
Church. As Mrs. Kelley sat with the list of 
names she had obtained, waiting, all seemed 
hopeless. The pastor, Dr. Kelley, entered the 
church and said: Organize your society just 
as if the house were filled. Her heart was 
warmed, and she knelt in prayer. This so- 


ciety took up the same work in which the 
original society had been engaged: aid to Mrs. 
Lambuth s school in Shanghai." 

Mrs. D. H. McGavock says of this meet 
ing, which has since come to be of such large 
import: "After much thought and prayer, a 
day was appointed by Mrs. Kelley to meet the 
women of the Church and bring the subject 
before them. When the day came the ele 
ments of earth, air, and sky all seemed to cast 
a shadow over the effort. As the wind whirled 
and the rain poured, the disappointed mother 
of the movement stood at a window of her 
dwelling watching the storm. As the clouds 
emptied their floods the tears flowed from her 
eyes on her pale cheeks, but her faith never 
wavered and her resolve to carry on this 
work did not for a moment falter. Entering 
her strong tower of prayer, she committed the 
whole cause to her Heavenly Father without 
a moment s fear of the result." 

After months of delay another effort was 
made, and at last the desire of the years began 
to take form. In April, 1874, the Woman s Bi 
ble Mission of Nashville was organized, with 
the following officers : Mrs. M. L. Kelley, Pres 
ident; Mrs. D. H. McGavock, Corresponding 
Secretary; Miss Lucie Ross, Recording Secre- 


tary; and Mrs. T. D. Fite, Treasurer. A vice 
president and managers, one from each of the 
different Churches in the city, were also elect 
ed. The society had two distinct objects 
namely, "To send pecuniary aid to the foreign 
mission fields and to employ efficiently the 
women at home in a systematic visitation and 
Bible instruction of the poor and destitute in 
their own midst." 

This new society thus kept in mind the local 
work and revived that which had been begun 
on the Lebanon Circuit namely, the support 
of Mrs. Lambuth s work in China. 

In 1875 Rev. and Mrs. J. W. Lambuth vis 
ited the United States, and in their tour of the 
home Churches spoke in McKendree Church. 
Mrs. McGavock was so stirred by their mes 
sages concerning the needs of China that under 
a strict pledge of secrecy she was moved to 
give to Mrs. Lambuth the diamonds which had 
pinned her wedding veil. The funds from 
their sale purchased a new building for the 
school in Shanghai, which was called the Clop- 
ton School, thus honoring Mrs. McGavock s 
mother, whose maiden name was Clopton. 

Work Begun in Baltimore. 
A few years prior to the organization of 


the Nashville auxiliary, Mrs, Juliana Hayes 
had begun work in Trinity Church, Baltimore, 
forming a society called the Trinity Home 
Mission. In 1873, however, having heard 
Mrs. Lambuth s call for aid in China, the so 
ciety changed its name to the Woman s Bible 
Mission, which embraced in its efforts the 
work of foreign missions. Through the in 
fluence of Mrs. Hayes this organization soon 
led to the forming of other societies in that 
vicinity. In April, 1873, one hundred dollars 
was sent to Mrs. Lambuth from seven auxili 
aries of Baltimore. This fund was applied to 
the support of a Bible woman, the daughter- 
in-law of the Bible woman who had years be 
fore received support from the first auxiliary 
on the Lebanon Circuit. The contributions 
from the Baltimore society from 1873 to 1878 
amounted to $1,011.50. 

A Connectional Missionary Society. 

Correspondence was carried on between the 
officers of the Baltimore and Nashville socie 
ties, and here and there throughout the Church 
missionary fires began to burn. The result 
was that there came into the mind and heart 
of Mrs. McGavock the thought of the possi 
bility of a connectional missionary society. 



She prepared a memorial to the General Con 
ference in 18/4 asking for authority to organ 
ize a woman s department of missions. The 
request was referred to the Committee on Mis 
sions and was never heard from again. 

This failure increased the determination of 
the women to push forward in the work that 
they knew so well God was calling them to do. 
Soon afterwards their first leader, Mrs. Kelley, 
was called to her reward, but the women did 
not flag in their efforts. Mrs. Butler says: 
"Mrs. McGavock took advantage of every 
opening and of every concurring thought to 
push forward this new phase of missionary 
work. She opened correspondence with all of 
the prominent ministers and members of the 
Church, both men and women, whose names 
and addresses she could obtain ; and some who 
were prominent in other denominations were 
liberal contributors, supporting boys and girls 
in Mrs. Lambuth s school. But now the 
thought of sending a young w r oman to China 
to be supported by the women at home began 
to assume a shade of importance and a tone 
of probability." 

A writer in the Christian Advocate asked 
this pertinent question: "What have we for 
Christian women to do?" 


A few weeks later Mrs. McGavock answered 
in the following words: "The Methodist Epis 
copal Church, South, seems to be waking up 
to the fact that women are both able and will 
ing to render effective service in evangelizing 
the world. Almost every week letters come 
from women in different States asking for in 
formation in reference to organizing societies, 
the best objects on which to expend funds al 
ready collected, and the channel through which 
such funds should be sent. The women of our 
beloved Church are aroused ; united effort, con 
cert of action is all that is lacking in the wom 
en of Southern Methodism. They are willing, 
generous, and vitally spiritual ; but they stand 
aloof from this duty, each waiting for the 
other to lead, to suggest and adopt plans that 
will advance this movement. The heart-stir 
ring letters from Bishop Marvin and Dr. Hen- 
drix in the East have aroused the missionary 
pulse to healthy action. Herein will lie the 
secret of success. Every circuit and station 
should have an auxiliary society, and every 
woman and child should give something an 
nually and send their contributions to a given 
center; then reports should be sent and pub 
lished that all might know the amounts, 
sources, and the direction given to the funds." 


This shows that the whole plan was mapped 
out very clearly in the minds of these leaders. 

Mrs. Hayes was untiring in her efforts to 
interest all with whom she came in touch, and 
the new undertaking was pushed with en 
thusiasm and unflagging zeal. 

In the year 1877 the first woman, in the 
person of Miss Lochie Rankin, offered her 
self for missionary service. This gave re 
newed enthusiasm and another tangible reason 
for pushing the woman s missionary cause 
before the General Conference, which was to 
meet the following year in Atlanta, Ga. 

At that meeting Dr. D. C. Kelley, then the 
Assistant Secretary of the Board of Missions, 
in report No. 4 of the Committee on Missions, 
recommended that the women of the Church 
be authorized to organize missionary work 
under a constitution. The need of the field 
was so evident and the ability of the women 
to help meet it so apparent that, at last, the 
shackles of conservatism were sufficiently 
loosed to make possible the unanimous adoption 
of the report. Then followed the organiza 
tion of the Woman s General Executive As 

On May 23, 1878, at 10 A.M., in the First 
Church in Atlanta a convention of women 


was held, and fifty-four names were enrolled 
as members. The College of Bishops appoint 
ed the officers and twenty-three women, living 
in different sections of the South, as man 
agers. Mrs. Juliana Hayes, of Baltimore, 
was President; the wives of the bishops, eight 
in all, were Vice Presidents; Mrs. D. H. Mc- 
Gavock, of Nashville, Tenn., Corresponding 
Secretary; and Mrs. James Whitworth, of 
Nashville, Tenn., Treasurer. 

In 1882, by action of the General Confer 
ence, the name of the General Executive As 
sociation was changed to the Woman s Board 
of Missions. Later the word "foreign" was 

Annual Meetings. 

The first annual meeting of the General Ex 
ecutive Association was held in the Broadway 
Church, Louisville, Ky., May 16, 17, 1879. 
The reports at that time gave evidence of the 
untiring service of love that was given in that 
initial year of organized service. The Confer 
ence societies numbered fifteen, while the aux 
iliaries were two hundred and eighteen. The 
membership enrolled had reached 5,890 and 
the money reported amounted to $4,014.37. 
Miss Lochie Rankin, of Shanghai, China, six 


Bible women, and the Clopton School had that 
year received support. 

The next annual meeting was held in Nash 
ville, Tenn., and it was found that in the sec 
ond year of the organization the Conference 
societies had grown from fifteen to twenty- 
two, with four hundred and seventy-five auxili 
aries and 12,548 members. 

Probably the most far-reaching plan made at 
this meeting was the decision to publish a mis 
sionary magazine to be called the Woman s 
Missionary Advocate. Mrs. F. A. Butler was 
elected editor and continued in that office until 
the home and foreign societies were merged. 
In the seventh Annual Report we read: "It [the 
Missionary Advocate] is a live organ, and the 
woman who edits it and the ten thousand who 
read it are wide-awake. From the first it has 
vindicated its right to be our paper, has justi 
fied our faith in its success, and beautifully il 
lustrated our happy choice of its editor. It is 
the bond of union between the Conference so 
cieties a living, pulsating bond." These 
words continued to characterize the magazine 
throughout its lifetime. 

After the First Twenty Years. 
In 1895 the annual meeting was held in 


Meridian, Miss., and neither the president nor 
the corresponding secretary was able to be 
present. Mrs. Butler, in her "History of the 
Woman s Foreign Missionary Society," says: 
"In less than one month after this meeting the 
sad news came that the revered president had 
passed away and entered into the life more 
abundant. Mrs. Juliana Hayes died on the 
second day of June, 1895. She was a woman 
of marvelous power. While president of the 
society, in building up the work, she created 
an interest in it wherever she traveled or was 
heard to speak and invariably brought to the 
subject a perennial freshness and enthusiasm. 

"The health of the Corresponding Secre 
tary, Mrs. McGavock, was also distressingly 
precarious, and the end seemed to be approach 
ing stealthily, but most surely. Late in Sep 
tember, 1895, sne called a meeting of the local 
Board to be held in her own chamber ; the busi 
ness was presented, and then, when scarcely 
able to hold a pen, she signed papers giving 
the power of attorney to the Secretary of 
Home Affairs, Mrs. S. C. Trueheart, saying: 
This is my last official act. " 

After twenty years of pioneer work these 
leaders were called away, but there were those 
ready to take their places who had been inter- 


ested from the very beginning. Mrs. True- 
heart was elected to fill the place of corre 
sponding secretary. She had already served 
with Mrs. McGavock as promoter of the home 
base, so was eminently fitted to carry on the 
work. In an editorial of the September Mis 
sionary Voice of 1912 her work and spirit are 
characterized in the following words: "The 
marked success of the missionary enterprise of 
the Church is due in large measure to Mrs. 
Trueheart s knowledge of the work both at 
home and in the foreign fields; to her calm 
judgment, wise leadership, wonderful insight 
into character, and deep love of the mission 
field." Miss Belle Bennett says of her: "As 
an officer and a member of the Woman s 
Board of Missions and, after the death of 
Mrs. McGavock, as General Secretary, she did 
more to frame the policy and secure the enact 
ment of laws than any other one woman in 
the work." 

Upon the death of Mrs. Hayes, Mrs. Wight- 
man was elected to the presidency of the Wom 
an s Board of Foreign Missions. She served 
until 1906, at which time she resigned on ac 
count of failing health. Throughout these 
years she gave voluntary service unsparingly. 
Her power and influence is expressed in the 


words of Mrs. R. E. Stackhouse: "For many 
years she bore unceasingly the toils arid trials 
incident to pioneer work, for the Church had to 
be won to the cause of woman s work. She 
met barriers that would have made a weaker 
vessel falter. In her presence all apathy to the 
work of sending the gospel to heathen nations 
vanished. Her enthusiasm was contagious; 
assemblies addressed by her caught the inspira 
tion of her mighty faith, were lifted to higher 
ground, moved to give themselves under the 
inspiration of her sanctifying influence." 

Miss M. L. Gibson, who had been serving 
for a number of years as vice president, was 
elected to the presidency upon the retirement 
of Mrs. Wightman. In this capacity she con 
tinued to serve until the union of the boards in 


It will be recalled that the first auxiliaries 
embraced in their work ministry at home, 
and that this service soon became overshad 
owed by the appalling need in the foreign 
field. The vision of the world as one great 
field to be conquered for Christ had not yet 
been grasped, and thus it was that God must 
seek in other directions for the embodiment 
of service at home. 


A Leader Called. 

The home work took form first through the 
vision of Miss Lucinda B. Helm. In speak 
ing of her burning desire for service in this 
field, she says: "I felt as if some propelling 
power beyond me had entered my soul and was 
moving me with an irresistible force to throw 
my life into this work of helping to redeem my 
country from the enemy of souls and to es 
tablish the kingdom of the Lord." 

Bishop Hargrove, in his work in the West, 
had been compelled to leave several charges 
without appointments because there were no 
parsonages in which the preachers could live. 
To meet this need the men at the head of the 
Board of Church Extension began to look to 
the women of the Church for aid in building 
these homes, and Miss Helm was asked to 
formulate a plan for woman s work and to 
write a constitution and by-laws. In this plan 
she included local home mission work. When 
it was submitted to the Board of Church Ex 
tension they prepared a memorial to the Gen 
eral Conference which read as follows: 
"Whereas there is great lack of parsonages in 
the weaker charges and throughout the 
Church, and whereas there is no organized 
agency to supply this demand which appeals 


so directly and so strongly to the Christian en 
deavor of woman, whose special realm is the 
home, the Board of Church Extension believes 
that it is expedient that the General Confer 
ence provide for a Woman s Department of 
Church Extension having specific reference to 
the supply of parsonages for itinerant preach 
ers, and ask the body so to do." 

The Woman s Department of Church Exten 

The provision which the General Conference 
finally made for the woman s work reads as 
follows: "The Board of Church Extension 
shall organize a department to be known as 
the Woman s Department of Church Exten 
sion, the object of which shall be to collect 
funds for purchasing and securing parsonages. 
All funds so collected shall be subject to the 
direction of the local boards of Church Ex 
tension for the objects specified." It will be 
noted that the work of the women was confined 
strictly within the limits of parsonage building 
and that it resolved itself merely into the col 
lection of funds for that purpose. It was the 
beginning, however, of larger things for the 

At a meeting of the Board of Church Ex- 


tension on May 21, 1886, Miss Luanda B. 
Helm was elected General Secretary of the 
Woman s Department of Church Extension. 
In her second annual report she says: "Twen 
ty-four thousand leaflets have been distributed. 
The woman s work has been kept before the 
public through the various Church papers and 
earnestly presented to individuals by personal 
letters. In response to our efforts, 214 socie 
ties have been organized, reporting 3,529 mem 
bers. The children are reported effectively at 
work in sixty-one places. The financial report 
is most encouraging. The benefit that our so 
cieties have been to the local work is shown 
in the report of 171 added to Sabbath schools 
and a large sum of special donations reported 
as raised for local work, which amounted to 
$4,579.09. This was raised by extra efforts 
outside their dues. We have endeavored 
through our societies to foster spirituality and 
urge greater personal effort on the part of our 
women and children to be missionaries at 
home and give the comforts and saving grace 
of the gospel to those around them." 

In addition to the work done at her desk, 
Miss Helm traveled over the Church organ 
izing societies, all without remuneration. The 


Board wished to appropriate money for her 
salary, but she refused to accept it. 

The Woman s Parsonage and Home Mission 

As she went from place to place she ob 
served that societies for local work were 
springing up everywhere, and in some places 
the women were beginning to awaken to the 
need of a connectional home mission society. 
As a consequence, Miss Helm resolved to pre 
sent to the coming General Conference of 1890 
a request for authorization to add the work of 
home missions to that of parsonage building. 
Even her stanchest friends opposed her, say 
ing that the parsonage society was still young 
and that the Church was not yet ready for 
such activities among the women. It was also 
stoutly maintained that the organization of 
home mission societies would hinder the work 
of the foreign mission society. Miss Helm, 
however, answered all of these objections so 
forcefully and was so successful in arousing 
the interest of the leading men and women of 
the Church that the General Conference ap 
proved the plan, changing the name of the or 
ganization to the Woman s Parsonage and 
Home Mission Society. Provision was made 


for a central committee, with officers who 
should share the work which Miss Helm had 
begun. The following names make up the roll 
of this committee: Mrs. E. E. Wiley, Presi 
dent; Miss Lucinda B. Helm, General Secre 
tary; Mrs. George Kendrick, General Treas 
urer. Managers: Mrs. R. K. Hargrove, Mrs. 
Nathan Scarritt, Mrs. D. Atkins, Mrs. S. S. 
King, Miss Emily M. Allen, Mrs. Maria Car 
ter, Mrs. Ellen Burdett, and Miss Sue Bennett. 
After the death of Miss Sue Bennett, Miss 
Belle H. Bennett became a member of the 
Central Committee, and the name of Mrs. 
Gross Alexander was added as Editor of Leaf 

Parsonage work was continued in the same 
manner as formerly, but the work of home 
missions was projected and was entirely under 
the direction of the Central Committee. 

The first annual meeting of the Central 
Committee was held at Chestnut Street 
Church, Louisville, Ky., in April, 1891. Miss 
Helm s report showed 472 auxiliaries and a 
total amount of $10,477.37 raised during the 
previous year. 

Mrs. Wiley continued to act as president of 
the Central Committee until the year 1896, at 
which time Miss Belle Bennett was elected and 


continued as the head of the Home Mission 
Society throughout the remainder of its his 
tory as a separate organization. 

"Our Homes" Published. 

Soon after the new organization took form, 
Miss Helm began the publication of the home 
mission organ, Our Homes. She was always 
delicate in health, and as her strength began 
to wane it became apparent that the work she 
was doing was beyond her physical powers. 
She resigned her secretaryship in 1893 and 
Mrs. R. K. Hargrove was elected in her place. 
Miss Helm, however, continued to edit Our 
Homes up to the time of her death. On the 
death of her sister, Miss Mary Helm became 
the editor and continued in that office until 
this magazine and the Missionary Advocate 
were discontinued. Miss Helm s large vision 
and her unusual powers of mind made her an 
editor of unusual ability. Much of the larger 
development of the home mission enterprise 
was due to the power of her pen. 

The Woman s Home Mission Society. 

In 1898 there came to the organization an 
other change which meant great enlargement 
of the work. Bv the action of the General 


Conference the name was changed to the 
Woman s Home Mission Society and, to take 
the place of the Central Committee, a Woman s 
Board of Home Missions was organized con 
sisting of a president, two vice presidents, a 
general secretary, a recording secretary, a gen 
eral treasurer, and a corresponding secretary 
or alternate from each Conference. Thus 
again the responsibility was extended. The 
first officers of the Board were as follows: 
President, Miss Belle H. Bennett; First Vice 
President, Mrs. J. D. Hammond; Second Vice 
President, Mrs. T. C. Carroll; General Secre 
tary, Mrs. R. K. Hargrove; Recording Secre 
tary, Miss Emily Allen; Treasurer, Mrs. W. 
D. Kirkland. 

Mrs. R. K. Hargrove was general secretary 
for seven years and then resigned on account 
of failing health. She gives the following ac 
count of the growth of the work during her 
administration: "Through God s blessing, in 
the face of almost insurmountable difficulties, 
our members have grown in seven years from 
11,107 l oca l an d connectional members, most 
of whom were local, to 23,315 connectional 
members. Our annual receipts have increased 
from $5,038 to $40,190 and our local funds 
from $3,936 to $20,549. At the beginning of 


this period we held no property, but now we 
have possessions valued at $80,000." Mrs. 
R. W. MacDonell succeeded Mrs. Hargrove 
in the office of general secretary. It was dur 
ing her administration that the office of dea 
coness was inaugurated and the largest devel 
opment came to the work of city missions. 


The Woman s Board of Foreign Missions 
had had a corporate existence of thirty-two 
years and the Woman s Board of Home Mis 
sions twenty-five years, when in 1910 the two 
were merged and a unification plan consum 
mated with the Board of Missions. 

The Woman s Board of Foreign Missions 
had for a number of years worked under the 
handicap of imposed restrictions, and in 1906 
a commission was appointed by the General 
Conference for the express purpose of pre 
senting to the General Conference of 1910 a 
plan of unification. The commission was com 
posed of nine men and only four women. Both 
of the woman s boards, in executive session, 
voted almost unanimously against any change 
in their autonomy. A number of meetings of 
the commission was held, but no satisfactory 
plan evolved, so when the final meeting came, 


just prior to the opening of the General Con 
ference, the entire question of unification was 
reopened. A plan was finally agreed upon 
which was presented to the General Conference 
and ratified without amendment. 

Under this plan the two woman s hoards 
ceased to exist as separate organizations, and 
the Woman s Missionary Council was created 
as their successor which was to function with 
much of their former power, subject, ho\vever, 
to the sanction of the Board of Missions. Pro 
vision was also made for the membership of 
fifteen women on the Board of Missions ten 
managers, four secretaries, who were also 
secretaries of the Board of Missions, and the 

The plan was new and untried, and the rep 
resentation of the women on the Board was 
comparatively small, yet they entered into the 
new enterprise with heart and enthusiasm, be 
lieving it to be a step forward in the union of 
the forces for the upbuilding of the kingdom. 
Their pledge to the Church was made before 
the General Conference in the following 

We are not unmindful of all that is accorded women 
by this measure, but we also remember the great heart 
ache that will come to the women of the Church as we 


pass out of the old life into the new. We plead that 
you will, therefore, make no radical changes in the re 
port of the Committee on Missions regarding the wom 
en, their special work, their responsibility, and the col 
lection and direction of moneys contributed by them. 
God helping us, we will do all in our power to make 
the proposed plan effective in bringing the world to a 
knowledge of Jesus Christ and his saving power. 

The officers and executive committees of 
the two woman s boards met at Asheville be 
fore the adjournment of the General Confer 
ence. Miss Belle H. Bennett, whose heart and 
life had for years been in the work of foreign 
missions and who had from the beginning 
been the great leader of the home mission 
forces, was unanimously and without question 
elected as president of this new united woman s 
work. Mrs. J. B. Cobb, who had been for a 
number of years Associate Secretary in the 
Woman s Foreign Board, was elected Corre 
sponding Secretary of the Woman s Mission 
ary Council, Foreign Department; while Mrs. 
R. W. MacDonell was elected to the secretary 
ship of the Home Department. Mrs. A. L. 
Marshall was elected Editorial Secretary ; Miss 
Mabel Head, Educational Secretary; Miss 


Daisy Davies, Field Secretary; and Mrs. F. 
H. E. Ross, Treasurer. Mrs. Fitzgerald S. 
Parker, Recording Secretary of the Woman s 
Foreign Board and Mrs. Frank Siler, Record 
ing Secretary of the Woman s Home Board 
were both elected to this same work in the 
Woman s Missionary Council. The following 
ten women were elected as Managers of the 
Board of Missions: Miss Belle H. Bennett, 
Miss Maria Layng Gibson, Mrs. L. P. Smith, 
Mrs. Luke G. Johnson, Mrs. W. F. Barnum, 
Mrs. E. B. Chappell, Miss Daisy Davies, Mrs. 
Hume R. Steele, Miss Mary Moore, and Mrs. 
Lee Britt. 

On April 20, 1911, the first session of the 
Woman s Missionary Council was held in St. 
John s Church, St. Louis, Mo. The plan of 
union, had left the Conferences and auxiliaries 
free to unite or remain separate, and at this 
meeting there came an unexpected demand for 
definite ruling on this subject. The Council 
wisely advised union and left the matter to 
be settled by the Conferences and auxiliaries 
themselves. While there was much opposition 
to unification in some quarters, yet within a 
few short months nearly every Conference had 
loyally fallen into line., and the world rapidly 


became to these missionary women one great 
mission field. 

At the time of the third annual session of 
the Council the membership of the woman s 
united societies was increasing so rapidly and 
the forward look becoming so filled with hope 
that the President recommended the election 
of a secretary whose duty it should be to en 
large and strengthen the home base. At this 
meeting the office of Home Base Secretary was 
authorized and Mrs. B. W. Lipscomb elected 
to fill the place. 

In 1914 Mrs. J. B. Cobb declined reelection, 
and Miss Mabel Head was selected as her suc 
cessor, while Mrs. H. R. Steele was chosen for 
the office of Educational Secretary. 

The work under the new plan grew so 
rapidly that a larger working force was de 
manded. This demand resulted in legislation 
by the General Conference of 1918 providing 
for additional secretaries: two executives for 
the home department, two for the foreign, 
and two for the educational. The following 
were elected to fill these places: Mrs. R. W. 
MacDonnell, in charge of Deaconess and City 
Mission Work; Mrs. J. W. Downs, in charge 
of Home Mission Educational Institutions and 
Social Service ; Miss Mabel K. Howell, Execu- 


tive Secretary of Oriental Fields ; and Miss 
Esther Case, Executive Secretary for Latin- 
American and African fields; Mrs. H. R. 
Steele, Educational Secretary in charge of 
candidate work; and Miss Sara Estelle Has- 
kin, Educational Secretary, in charge of litera 

Mrs. R. W. MacDonell resigned in 1919 
and Mrs. J. H. McCoy was elected to fill her 
place. Mrs. MacDonell had served the Wom 
an s Board of Home Missions for ten years 
and the Woman s Missionary Council for nine 
years, making in all nineteen years of efficient 
service. Her report at the end of this period 
says: "Through God s blessing this work in 
these years has grown from a cash collection 
of $48,249.17 to $263,896.07; while City Mis 
sion Board expenditures have increased from 
$6,237.76 to $81,418.77. Nineteen hundred 
parsonages were aided. The endowment funds 
have increased from $19,494.81 to $119,104. 
Work among Negroes, Mexicans, and de 
pendent girls has been inaugurated. The office 
of deaconess has been created in the Church, 
and its development committed to the Home 
Department. One hundred and twenty-five 
deaconesses and one hundred and eleven home 
missionaries have been trained and sent out 


into the work. The number of city mission 
boards has increased from eight to thirty-six, 
while a system of Wesley Houses and other 
social centers has been developed. There are 
now thirty-seven Wesley Houses, Bethlehem 
Houses, and other social centers, and seven co 
operative homes for working girls in opera 

In 1920 the organized woman s missionary 
work of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South, marked its forty-second year. The 
story of its achievements is told briefly in the 
chapters which follow. 



Lead me, yea, lead me deeper into life, 
This suffering human life wherein thou liv st 
And breathest still and holdst thy way divine. 
Tis here, O pitying Christ, where thee I seek, 
Here where the strife is fiercest, where the sun 
Beats down upon the highway thronged with men, 
And in the raging mart. O deeper lead 
My soul into the living world of souls 
Where thou dost move. 

Richard Watson Gilder. 




The Clapton School. 

The Clopton Boarding School, conducted by 
Mrs. J. W. Lambuth, in Shanghai, China, 
was the strong appeal which urged the wom 
en of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 
to launch out upon their first great missionary 
undertaking. Consequently, when Miss Lochie 
Rankin offered herself for China she was ac 
cepted and appointed to assist Mrs. Lambuth. 
A contribution in money, which came from the 
gift and sale of Mrs. D. H. McGavock s wed 
ding diamonds, had already made possible a 
building for this school. The gift carried 
with it the name "Clopton," in honor of Mrs. 
McGavock s mother, whose maiden name was 
Elizabeth Clopton. 

Pleasant College. 

Because of the inadvisability of enlarging 
the Clopton School, it was urged by Dr. Wal 
ter Lambuth that a school for girls be opened 



in Nanziang, a city fifteen miles from Shang 
hai. Accordingly, at the close of Miss Ran- 
kin s first year she was appointed to this city, 
which could be reached only by boat or wheel 

At the first meeting of the General Execu 
tive Association of the Woman s Missionary 
Society $1,500 was appropriated for this new 
school and $750 for a second missionary, and 
Pleasant College became the first real mis 
sionary enterprise of the women of the M. 
E. Church. South. Miss Dora Rankin, the 
sister of Miss Lochie Rankin, offered herself 
in response to the call that was sent out for 
another worker. Pleasant College was opened 
with fourteen boarding pupils. This number 
soon increased to thirty, the full number that 
could receive accommodation. In addition to 
the boarding school, several day schools were 
opened for boys and girls. With indomitable 
courage and unwavering faith this first work 
was carried forward under the trying circum 
stances of complete isolation and strange sur 
roundings. In 1883 a larger school, a new 
church, and a new school for the boys made 
the w r ork less difficult. 

Two years later a blow fell upon this new 
missionary enterprise, when Miss Dora Ran- 


kin s health failed, and she was called to her 
reward. The heroic sister, however, never 
abated her efforts, but concentrated her mind 
and soul upon the enlargement of the work. 
She had been conducting a day school for 
boys in Kading under the most discouraging 
circumstances when suddenly, in 1887, the 
doors of opportunity were thrown wide open. 
The literati of the city had come to appreci 
ate her efforts and were begging her to open 
an Anglo-Chinese school. Misses Kate Rob 
erts and Ada Reagan were left in charge 
at Nantziang while Miss Rankin worked in 
Kading, itinerating between the two places in 
an uncomfortable canal boat. Because of the 
difficulty of making the daily trips, she moved 
to Kading and was the first foreign woman to 
sleep in that great walled city. Mrs. Cobb 
says of this wonderful work: "All classes had 
to be accommodated. The gifted son of the 
official; the shrewd, quick-witted son of the 
tradesman; the less brilliant son of the day 
laborer all heard the old, old story with the 
child of the poorest coolie. The school was 
arranged in every particular to suit the Chi 
nese. There were no stoves, no w r ooden floors, 
only large rooms with bare stone floors which 
even the bright winter sunshine could not 


make comfortable. Despite the heat of sum 
mer, the rooms were endurable only during 
that season. At last riots became common in 
the city, and though Miss Rankin s work was 
not disturbed, it was deemed wise for her to re 
move to Nanziang. The work in the two 
places was very exhausting; but she met all 
her engagements through cold, rain, heat, and 
illness; and the school at Nanziang increased 
in interest and numbers, the power of the 
gospel penetrating all classes." 

In 1901 the General Board of Missions de 
cided to carry on work in prefectural cities 
only, and upon the withdrawal of other mis 
sion workers it seemed wise for the women 
to abandon Nanziang and Kading. This was 
a great distress to both Miss Rankin and the 
people whom she served. She still continued 
her work among them, however, by paying 
the expenses of a day school at Nanziang. 

Miss Rankin, together with Miss Ella Cof 
fee who had become associated with her, was 
appointed by the bishop to pioneer work in 
Huchow. Miss Rankin initiated a school for 
boys, while Miss Coffee opened the Virginia 
School for Girls. Miss Rankin remained at 
her post of service for nineteen years without 
a furlough. She came home in 1914, but hur- 


ried back as soon as the Council would allow 
to resume with glad heart the service of long 
years in China. Her courage and energy 
and ability set a pace for the work in this 
field that never lagged. 

McTyeire School. 

The steamship City of Peking sailed from 
San Francisco October 18, 1884, carrying 
nine missionaries, among them Miss Laura 
Hay good, a talented high school teacher, of 
Atlanta, Ga., who had responded to the plea 
of Dr. Young J. Allen for more women mis 
sionaries to lead the women of China. His 
vision of the redemption of China was all- 
inclusive and carried with it the conviction 
that the high-class Chinese should be reached 
by the gospel of Jesus Christ. 

Miss Haygood s first work after she reached 
the field was the teaching of English in the 
Anglo-Chinese College. She soon caught Dr. 
Allen s vision for reaching the leadership of 
China and set her whole mind and heart upon 
the establishment of a high-grade school in 
Shanghai for high-class Chinese girls. While 
waiting for funds from the Woman s Board 
she taught in the Clopton School, which after- 


wards became the primary department of the 
high school which she established. After 
many delays, the school had its opening in the 
fall of 1893. This was the beginning of a 
new era in woman s work in China. From 
seven, the first enrollment, the number rapid 
ly increased to hundreds, until within ten 
years the buildings were outgrown. McGav- 
ock Home was added, the parsonage next door 
secured ; but still girls were being turned away. 
The church building on the compound was 
purchased, neighboring houses were rent 
ed; still these did not suffice for the number 
who applied for admittance. Miss. Haygood, 
in her seven years of service in the school, 
put upon it a stamp which marked it as the 
leading girls school in all China. 

Miss Helen Richardson, her worthy suc 
cessor, gave to McTyeire seventeen years of 
self-sacrificing service, helping to build the 
character of the womanhood of China. Dur 
ing her administration the growth and circum 
stances of the institution demanded a change 
of locality, and in 1916 a handsome property 
of nine acres was purchased in a suburb of 
Shanghai. The high school was moved into 
the twenty-five room residence which was al 
ready on the property, while the grades were 


continued down town. Upon the death of 
Miss Helen Richardson the school was car 
ried on for one year by the faculty without a 
principal in charge. In 1918 Miss Martha 
Pyle was appointed Principal. Miss Pyle had 
once, for a short time, been a teacher in Mc- 
Tyeire. She had also opened the Laura Hay- 
good in Soochow and continued at its head 
until it was changed to a normal school. She 
was, therefore, well fitted as the successor of 
the two able principals who had preceded her. 
If the history of the students of McTyeire 
school were written, it would be found that 
they have come from homes of all classes 
of Chinese people and from all sections of 
China. It would also be discovered that the 
graduates have come to occupy positions of 
trust and leadership, and that they have shared 
in the making of new China. In 1920 twenty- 
nine young Chinese women had been sent to 
American colleges on the indemnity fund. 
Of this number thirteen were McTyeire girls 
who had stood the test and won the honor. 

The Laura Haygood School. 

The woman s work in Soochow, like that 
in Shanghai, owed its beginning to the wife 


of a missionary. In 1881 an appropriation 
was made by the Woman s Board for the 
opening of a boarding school in Soochow to 
be in charge of Mrs. A. P. Parker. A plant 
was purchased, and the school was opened 
the following year with twelve pupils and a 
teacher who had been trained in the Clopton 
school in Shanghai. This school for a time 
bore the name of East Side Boarding School, 
but was later called the Mary Lambuth School. 
In her first Deport, Mrs. Parker says: "I 
spend all my mornings with the scholars, an 
hour and a half of which time is spent in 
their Christian books, geography, and arith 
metic, the remainder of the time in sewing. 
In the afternoon a native teacher takes 
charge." An item in the report of the fol 
lowing year shows the untiring effort and the 
multiplicity of tasks undertaken by this con 
secrated woman. She says: "We have taken 
up no new work. It has required all our time 
and strength to keep up the old under the de 
mands of its natural growth. We still carry 
on the day schools for boys and girls, the 
Bible class for women, the boarding school, 
and Sabbath school, thus having under con 
stant Christian instruction over 180 women 
and children." Thus we can see that through 


Mrs. Parker s untiring efforts the way for 
our work in Soochow was pioneered and the 
foundations laid. She continued in charge of 
the boarding school until 1887, when it was 
turned over to Miss Lou Phillips. Mrs. J. P. 
Campbell afterwards directed the affairs of the 
school until 1895, when Miss Martha Pyle 
undertook its supervision. Miss Pyle began 
at once to urge the enlargement of the insti 
tution. She presented to the Board the spe 
cial need for the Christian education of the 
women of that section, in order that the Chris 
tian men who came out from Soochow Uni 
versity might not, necessarily, be handicapped 
by wedding heathen wives. It was in the 
plan of Miss Laura Haygood, when she was 
Superintendent of the mission, to establish a 
school in Soochow that would be the equal of 

In 1901 the Board voted the consolidation 
of the Mary Lambuth and the Clopton Schools, 
giving to the Shanghai school the name Clop- 
ton-Lambuth. At the same time plans were 
made for the establishment of a larger school 
in Soochow to be named the Laura Haygood. 
Miss Pyle, having had a year on furlough 
and a year of teaching in McTyeire, returned 
to open the Laura Haygood in an old build- 


ing and to plan for the erection of a new build 
ing. As the Laura Haygood began to assume 
pleasing proportions, one of the missionaries 
wrote: "The Laura Haygood, when, completed, 
will be worthy of the name it bears and a fit 
ting memorial to one who gave her life for 
China." The new building was finally com 
pleted in 1906, and the high standard that the 
school has maintained throughout the years 
of its existence has placed it in the ranks of 
the best schools for girls in China. Many 
Christian women have gone out from its 
doors who have honored the name of their 
Alma Mater. 

In 1916 the demand for a training school 
that would supply the day schools with trained 
Christian teachers had become so urgent that 
the Laura Haygood was changed into a high- 
grade normal. Miss Mary Lou White served 
as principal for the first year and was then 
succeeded by Miss Kate Hackney, who held 
the place until 1920, when she was in turn 
succeeded by Miss Louise Robinson. 

Davidson Memorial. 

At the annual meeting in St. Louis, 1881, 
Mrs. A. B. Davidson, of the Baltimore Con 
ference, had proposed the building up of a 


fund through gifts to be made in memory of 
departed ones. The plan was approved, and 
when the school for Bible women was opened 
in East Soochow by Mrs. Julia Gaither this 
accumulated fund was used, and the school 
was called the Davidson Memorial in honor 
of Mrs. Davidson. The w r ork of this school 
was to teach women who had professed faith 
in Jesus to read the Bible and to do personal 
work in the heathen homes of the city. Later 
the Bible school was transferred to West Soo 
chow, where a center of work was formed by 
union with the industrial school and the girls 
boarding school. 

In 1904 Miss Virginia Atkinson was put 
in full charge of the West Soochow work, 
which included not only the Davidson Me 
morial, with its various departments, but also 
nine day schools. About this same time the 
Louise Home, a residence for missionaries, 
was moved, brick by brick, from Nanziang to 
West Soochow, a distance of eighty miles. The 
Louise Home had been the gift of Miss Achsah 
Wilkins, a member of Trinity Church Auxilia- 
ary, Baltimore, in memory of her departed 
sister, Louise. It had been the home of the 
Rankin sisters and their coworkers during 
their years of service in Nanziang. 


The industrial department of the Davidson 
Memorial, later called the Mocha Garden Mis 
sion, was enterprised by Miss Atkinson and 
Miss Susie Williams. Miss Williams s thought 
had been to keep the girls who were in 
the literary department under Christian in 
fluence longer than the regular school hours 
and at the same time give them an opportunity 
to earn a livelihood. The school grew so rap 
idly, first under the supervision of Miss Wil 
liams and later of Miss Mary Culler White, 
that in 1905 it was moved into larger quar 
ters. The prosperity continued until the "mul 
berry grove," a desirable piece of land ad 
jacent to the Davidson Memorial, was pur 
chased, and in 1911 a new house was erected. 
In 1912 Miss Frances Burkhead was made 
business manager. The number of workers 
was increased, and the sales increased pro 
portionately. Orders for the exquisite work 
done in the Mocha Garden Mission came from 
China, America, the Philippines, Korea, Eng 
land, Norway, and Australia. 

Beautiful as was the work and important 
as was the financial results for the workers, 
far more important was the spiritual help that 
the women received while they sat, two at a 
frame, and listened to the daily instruction 


given by the Bible women. Many of the 
workers themselves became Bible women; 
others, learning the value of an education, 
entered the academic department of the David 
son Memorial. It is also worthy of note that 
the women of the Moka Garden Mission were 
the first women to learn to read the phonetic 
script based on the Wu dialect. The first 
primer of the Wu dialect written in the phonet 
ic script was prepared by Miss Burkhead. 

Kindergarten Work. 

The first kindergarten in Soochow was 
opened in 1907 in connection with the David 
son Memorial. The building which housed 
the school was made possible through the 
contributions of the South Georgia Confer 
ence. Miss Wu, the teacher in charge, was 
trained by Miss Margaret Cook, of the Hiro 
shima School in Japan. Soon after the open 
ing of the kindergarten the new regent de 
creed that kindergarten schools should be 
opened in connection with all government 
schools. This soon led to the establishment 
of a kindergarten training department at the 
Davidson. The building was provided by the 
North Alabama Conference, and Miss Nevada 


Martin, of the Mississippi Conference, was 
appointed director in 1911. 

Mrs. Staley, of Knoxville, Tenn., gave a dia 
mond ring which was sold and the money 
given to the opening of a kindergarten in 
East Soochow. This school was located near 
St. John s Church and also in close proximity 
to the Laura Haygood School. The Senah 
Staley Kindergarten soon grew to such pro 
portions under the leadership of Miss Mar 
guerite Park that there was not only a morn 
ing school but, also, an afternoon school, thus 
giving ample opportunity to the normal 
kindergarten students for observation and 
practice. The idea grew until, in 1914, there 
were in all eleven government and mission 
kindergartens in Soochow, and a directors 
meeting was being held each month under 
the supervision of the missionaries. 

In 1915 Miss Kate Hackney was made Su 
pervisor of the Kindergarten Training School 
at Davidson. The following year this de 
partment, together with its teaching force, 
was transferred to the Laura Haygood and 
made a part of the normal school. 

Medical Work. 
As early as 1880 plans were projected for 


the establishment of medical work in Soochow 
to supplement that of the General Board by 
serving the women of China and training na 
tive women physicians. The first step taken 
was to send Miss Mildred Phillips to the 
Woman s Medical College in Philadelphia that 
she might be trained for this work. The hos 
pital was finally opened in 1886 in two build 
ings. One contained a ward large enough for 
four beds, a room for private patients, and a 
service room; the other contained a kitchen 
and a wash room. During the first month 
280 patients were treated in the dispensary. 
After many hindrances the new hospital build 
ing was finished and formally opened by Bish 
op Wilson in October, 1889. A few years 
later a children s hospital was erected. The 
"Bright Jewels," of North Carolina, contrib 
uted $1,500 to the building and were granted 
the privilege of naming it in honor of Mrs. 
Mary Black, a much loved woman of that 
Conference. The children s hospital was soon 
discontinued for lack of a sufficient staff, and 
the name Mary Black was then transferred to 
the main building. 

On the failure of Dr. Phillips s health, Dr. 
Anne Walter took charge in September, 1893. 
The institution continued under her supervi- 


sion for three years, during which time she 
inaugurated the first modern medical school 
for Chinese women. In 1896 Dr. Margaret 
Polk was put at the head of this medical work, 
and that year the first Chinese girls to 
receive diplomas from an accredited medical 
school were graduated from the Mary Black. 
The numbers that graduated in the years to 
follow were limited, but the training received 
was of the highest order. Dr. Polk secured 
a charter for the school in 1908 and was able 
to offer to her students the same instruction 
that the men of Soochow University were re 
ceiving from the same teachers at the same 
time. This instruction was of inestimable 
value to the pupils, to the institution, and to 
the homes visited professionally. Dr. Folk s 
influence in the mission grew until she became 
a power not only as physician, but also as ad 
visor and friend. Thousands came to her 
for treatment, and most of them went away 
friends of the hospital. She had but little 
time for outside visiting and only small op 
portunity for learning the difficult language. 
For many years she toiled under manifold 
difficulties. Often she became discouraged, 
but she never gave up hope or ceased to put 
into the work her whole life and effort. After 


over sixteen years of devoted service Dr. 
Margaret Polk resigned for personal reasons, 
and her niece, Dr. Ethel Polk, and Dr. Hattie 
Love were put in charge. Both of these wom 
en had had exceptional advantages. They 
enlarged the scope of the institution by es 
tablishing clinics in several country places. 
They gave talks to the women on hygiene, tu 
berculosis, sanitation of homes, streets, and 
public places, on the care and treatment of 
children, and on the general health of homes 
and schools. 

In 1907 Miss Mary Hood, R.N., was ap 
pointed to take charge of the hospital nurs 
ing. Up to that time the nurses had had only 
such direction as could be given by the busy 
physicians in charge. Miss Hood began at 
once to develop the nurse-training department, 
and in 1913 she writes: "The principal event 
of the year was the graduating of the first 
class of nurses. The graduating exercises 
were held in June. Three received diplomas 
and four received certificates testifying to a 
practical training of six years." 

The standards of the medical and nurse- 
training schools were gradually raised. It 
was found impossible, however, to meet the 
demands of the time in an institution with no 


larger equipment. In the belief, therefore, 
that there was a vast need for well-equipped 
and well-trained native women physicians, a 
definite effort began to be made for the es 
tablishment of an institution that would be 
adequate to meet the demands of the times. 
This led to the thought of a union woman s 
medical school in Shanghai, and negotiations 
were begun with other boards for its opening. 
For this reason the Mary Black Hospital was 
closed in 1918, and the physicians and nurses 
served as Red Cross workers in Siberia until 
the close of the World War. 

Maria Gibson Settlement. 

In 1912 Miss Maggie Rogers was appointed 
to the Kong Hong Church in Soochow for 
the purpose of helping to conserve its evan 
gelistic efforts by the establishment of a center 
for woman s work. A kindergarten and a day 
school were soon developed, the teachers being 
sent out from the Davidson Memorial Normal 
Department. Two Bible women were also 
employed. From this beginning a social cen 
ter was soon developed, and in 1914 a one- 
hundred-room Chinese residence was rented to 
accommodate the work. In 1916, when Miss 
Bennett was in the Orient, this house was pur- 


chased and at her request given the name of 
Maria Gibson Settlement. The opportunities 
of the institution were found to be unlimited, 
for it was located near the church and within 
one block of the biggest shopping street in 
Soochow and also within easy reacn of one 
thousand high-class and merchant homes. 
The work having been begun in the Church, 
it continued to be looked upon as the woman s 
department of the Church. The fact that 
the settlement was being conducted in a Chi 
nese house gave to the people an added feel 
ing of freedom. A large community room, 
tea room, and rest room constituted one of the 
most attractive and useful features of the in 
stitution. Miss Rogers, as Head Resident, was 
for a time assisted by Miss Florence Herndon, 
and later Miss Nina Stallings was placed in 
charge. In 1920 four Bible women, two day 
school teachers, two kindergarten teachers, 
and one nurse made up the force of native 

Haycs-Wilkins Institute. 

At a meeting of the foreign board in 1896 
Miss Richardson was commissioned to buy 
land in Sungkiang for the erection of a Bible 


school, to be known as the Hayes-Wilkins In 
stitute. Two thousand dollars had been do 
nated for this school by Miss Wilkins through 
the solicitation of Mrs. Hayes, both of the 
Baltimore Conference, and the name was given 
in honor of these two women. The school 
was completed in 1898 and dedicated by 
Bishop Wilson in October of that year. The 
chapel was named for Melissa Baker, thereby 
honoring another member of the Baltimore 
Conference. At first the pupils were few, 
but the women of the city began to visit the 
school in such numbers that the prejudice 
against the foreigners was broken down, giv 
ing the missionaries access to the people. In 
time the building became so crowded that an 
addition was a necessity. Again a Baltimore 
woman responded to the need, and in 1904 
furnished the money for the building of 
Thomas Annex, which bears the name of its 
donor. In 1907 the Hayes-Wilkins School 
was rebuilt and Thomas Annex enlarged. 
This institution has for years been a center 
radiating the spirit of Jesus Christ through 
out all the surrounding sections. Mrs. Julia 
Gaither spent fourteen years in this institu 
tion, and as one of the main results of her 
service many Bible women have gone out to 


do work among their own people. In 1916 
Miss Irene King became head of the school 
and was later succeeded by Miss Mary Culler 

Susan B. Wilson School. 

Miss Alice Waters, who was in charge of 
the day school in Sungkiang, saw the need for 
a boarding school at that point and in 1903 
secured permission from the Woman s Board 
for its beginning. The school was opened 
in rented quarters, but soon the Baltimore 
Conference came again to the rescue and con 
tributed money for a new building, which 
bore the name Susan B. Wilson, in honor of 
the wife of Bishop Wilson. The building was 
dedicated in 1907 by Bishop Wilson, Mrs. 
Wilson and Dr. Lambuth taking part in the 
dedicatory exercises. The growth of the 
school soon demanded an addition, which was 
promptly made possible by the generosity of 
the Baltimore Conference. A kindergarten 
school was developed, and the building for 
this was supplied through the liberality of 
Mrs. George Bearing, of Louisville, Ky. This 
fund was supplemented by the gift of Mrs. 
Sallie Rushing, of Memphis. 


Hue HOW. 
The Virginia School. 

It will be recalled that Miss Rankin and 
her coworker, Miss Coffey, were appointed 
to Huchow when the work in Nanziang was 
closed. They brought with them some of their 
former pupils as workers. At first, when 
Miss Rankin tried to rent a building in which 
to open a school, none was found available; 
either the buildings were too dilapidated or the 
rent too high. However, the undaunted pio 
neer of the Woman s Board soon won her way, 
and the people began to make overtures. 

The Virginia Conference had already pro 
vided money for a boarding school, so in 1901 
the Virginia School opened with thirty pupils, 
the success being marked from the very first. 
Miss Coffey was at the head of the school for 
three years. She was succeeded by Miss Mil 
dred Bomar, whose vision and untiring ef 
forts placed the institution in the rank with 
our best mission schools. A new building 
was soon erected, one of the most beautiful 
owned by the Board. The Tennessee Home, 
the gift of Tennessee women, was built as a 
residence for the missionaries. When Miss 


Bomar was appointed to Bible woman s work, 
she was succeeded by Miss Clara Steger. 

After the opening of the Virginia School 
Miss Rankin turned her attention to the de 
velopment of day schools in the city of Hu- 
chow. The Memphis School, so named be 
cause of the liberality of Miss Rankin s own 
Conference, was a day school, and yet many 
of its pupils came from the surrounding dis 
tricts and were provided lodging outside the 
building. This school for boys was still in 
charge of Miss Rankin in 1920. 

The Virgina Primary School No. I, at 
Northgate, the Virginia Primary School No. 
2, at Zaung Ka, and the kindergarten were es 
tablished as the result of Miss Rankin s ef 
forts, but were later put in charge of Miss 
Mittie Shelton and made feeders to the Vir 
ginia School. 


It has been the policy of the woman s work 
to carry on day schools in all the cities where 
the boarding schools are located, thus making 
them a feeder to the higher grades. In addi 
tion to these, day schools have been opened in 
nearly all of the outstations. While many of 
them have not been well graded or adequately 
equipped, still the benefits have been untold. 


In nearly every case evangelistic work result 
ed in the establishment of schools. 

West Soochow Boys School. 

One of the most interesting and fruitful of 
these day schools was located at West Soo 
chow. Miss Mary Tarrant, its principal and 
the source of its power, writes of its origin 
and history: 

Twenty-five years ago, coming two miles across the 
city every day, Miss Atkinson superintended some little 
day schools for boys in West Soochow. The idea of 
educating their girls had not yet taken hold of the peo 
ple. The course of study was not extensive. The 
much-revered Chinese classics, which the boys learned 
by heart, swaying their bodies from side to side as they 
sang out the characters, composed a large part of the 
course. Bible stories and catechisms were taught the 
children and as much arithmetic and geography as their 
classic-bound little minds would receive. It was hard, 
too, to find suitable textbooks. The trips across the 
city were very unsatisfactory, and so a Chinese house 
was rented, and Miss Atkinson gathered her day schools 
together in one place, where she could live and watch 
them. English was added to the course for a very 
nominal charge. This kept parents from taking boys 
out of school and putting them to learn a trade as soon 
as they were beginning to understand Christianity. A 
number of boys united with the Church, some of whom 
are now teachers in our schools and stewards in the 
Church. As Miss Atkinson s work increased in other 
quarters, these day schools were turned over to me. 
About that time China began to appreciate the impor- 


tance of Western education. The lessons she learned 
after the Boxer uprising were not in vain. The return 
of the Boxer indemnity money to her by the United 
States for the education of students in America stirred 
up the government to improve education in China. A 
government course of study, according to grades, was 
published. Our day schools, which had never been regu 
larly graded, we tried to bring into line. Instead of 
considering them as separate schools for boys of dif 
ferent ages, we rearranged the schools and made three 
departments according to the government plan, corre 
lating the three under the name Anglo-Chinese Acade 
my. These departments, which still have the names 
of the home supporters, are : The McKendree Lower 
Primary Department, the Waco District Higher Pri 
mary Department, and the Galloway Middle School. 
This school meets a need in our West Soochow Church. 
It makes possible a Christian education for the sons 
of the Church members. If they are not able to pay 
the full rate of tuition, they are helped by scholarships. 
A small part of this money the boys pay back to the 
school when they go to work. There are one hundred 
and twenty-two pupils enrolled this fall (1918.) There 
are forty-five Christians and thirty-three probationers. 
The majority of those who have not yet made any pro 
fession are in the primary departments. 

The Sallie Stewart School. 

About the time that Miss Atkinson moved 
the West Soochow day schools into one big 
house, a little day school for girls was opened 
near by. This school, called the Sallie Stew 
art, developed with the years into two depart- 


ments, a lower and a higher primary. Later 
it became a part of the Davidson Memorial. 


Two day schools and evangelistic centers 
were opened in Changchow in 1908, the one 
at North Gate by Miss Ella Leverett and the 
other at East Gate by Miss Ida Anderson. The 
North Gate work was conducted in a Chi 
nese house in which Miss Leverett lived. 
Speaking of this house, she says: "It is quite 
easy to spread abroad on the right hand and 
on the left, and so we have spread as the old 
tent filled." Of the character of the school 
work which had been developed, Miss Leverett 
writes in 1914: 

There is an eight-year course in this school, and 
Chinese is stressed rather than English. The school 
has grown wonderfully, and arrangements have been 
made to accommodate a few other pupils, for we can 
not stop, since the tide is pushing us on with such 
force. The schools in Changchow shape their course 
by ours, follow us in many respects, and look to us for 
help. Some of them have even asked me to help them 
by teaching their girls to sing. A day school such as 
we are trying to make ours is obliged to wield a great 
influence for good in the city. The girls go home 
every night with their Bibles, songbooks, and Chris 
tian teachings of the day, and this is bound to impress 
the family. God is blessing us and our pupils, and we 
are happy in the work. 


The day school at East Gate was opened in 
an old ancestral hall, which the artistic taste 
of Miss Anderson transformed into a most 
attractive room. Adjoining this hall was a 
famous temple of a war god, which, through 
the influence of the missionaries, was allowed 
to be used for evangelistic services. 

Humbert Home, named for Mrs. J. W. 
Humbert, for years Corresponding Secretary 
of the South Carolina Conference Society, was 
erected in 1916 for the missionaries residence. 
This was the first foreign house built in Chang- 
chow. It proved to be a great attraction to 
the people, and soon became a social and evan 
gelistic center. In 1914 Miss Anderson writes 
of her day school: 

The school has grown steadily, until now we have 
about sixty pupils. We have no dividing line between 
the evangelistic work and the school. Most of our 
women probationers are from the homes of our girls. 
These homes are open to the Bible women ; and as each 
of these workers has a Bible or singing or industrial 
class in the school, they are welcomed in the homes as 
their children s teachers, and so there are points of 
contact. The girls not only attend Sunday school and 
Church services, but many of them elect to come in the 
afternoons to teach in the two Sunday schools for the 
children who do not attend our day schools. 


Gilding College. 

As the years passed and the mission work 
of the denominations grew in China, a need 
was felt for Christian colleges for women. 
In response to this demand definite steps were 
taken in 1911 for the establishment of a 
union woman s college at Nanking. This in 
stitution came to be known as Ginling College. 
In its building and maintenance the women 
of Southern Methodism were responsible for 
a one-fifth share. 

Bible School. 

In 1912 a union Bible school was es 
tablished in Nanking, supported by the mis 
sion boards of the Northern and Southern 
Presbyterians, the Baptists, the Friends, 
the Methodist Episcopal, and the Woman s 
Missionary Council of the Methodist Episco 
pal Church, South. This school soon came 
to be the most highly specialized training cen 
ter for Christian workers in China. Miss Ruth 
Brittain, our capable and efficient representa 
tive in her report of 1919 says of the insti 


In 1919 a class of eight young women was graduated. 
There are now thirty-five graduates at work in the 
provinces of Fukien, Chekiang, and Kiangsu. Fifteen 
are evangelists, and ten are teachers in Bible schools. 
This fall thirty-four boarders and three day students 
enrolled. They represent ten provinces and fourteen 
denominations. They came from thirty-one schools. 
The Southern Methodists have three students, two from 
Laura Haygood and one from McTyeire. 

Our greatest need is a new building, to which the 
cooperating boards gave their $5,000 shares. The plans 
are being pushed forward, and we hope for their ma 
terialization in the near future. 


From the very beginning, the work of our 
schools in China was made truly evangelistic ; 
but it was not until 1909 that the Woman s 
Board appointed missionaries who should give 
their entire time to evangelistic work. It was 
in that year that Miss Mary Culler White was 
appointed to the Mary Black Hospital and out- 
stations for evangelistic service. In the hos 
pital she had three or four Bible women who 
gave full time and a number of helpers who 
were delegated to work in the city and coun 
try. Some years more than 8,500 patients 
were received into the hospital. A patient was 
usually accompanied by two or three attend 
ants, thus making about 30,000 people who 
went in and out of the doors of the hospital. 


This gave great possibilities for personal 

In 1910 all the mission boards of China 
began to place new emphasis upon, evangelis 
tic work, and this opened up new opportuni 
ties for our evangelistic workers. The names 
of Mrs. Gaither, Misses Tarrant, Bomar, Wa 
ters, King, Anderson, Leverett, Rogers, 
Wales, Combs, and Bliler are numbered among 
those who gave time and service to strictly 
evangelistic work. These missionaries, togeth 
er with scores of Bible women trained as work 
ers and helpers, have taught the gospel of Je 
sus in public meetings and in personal work 
until thousands have been added to the Church 
es through their efforts. 


One of the most certain signs of the suc 
cess of the gospel in China was the organ 
ization of a Woman s Missionary Society in 
1916. In 1920 there were forty-one auxili 
aries with a total membership of 1,514. So 
cieties numbering fifty or sixty members were 
not uncommon, these members often coming 
for miles to attend their meetings. At that 
time young people s auxiliaries had also been 
organized in most of the mission schools. 



The report of 1920 showed that the total 
receipts of that year were $1,315.91. From 
this amount $768.25 went to the support of 
the mission in Yun-nan Province and $109.76 
to the Woman s Missionary Council for the 
work in Africa. A large part of this money 
was raised by life certificates, the life certi 
ficate having made a special appeal to the Chi 
nese women as a substitute for some of the 
practices connected with ancestral worship. 

A report of the third annual meeting of the 
China Mission Conference says: 

The third annual meeting of the China Mission Con 
ference Woman s Missionary Society was held in Sung- 
kiang April 21-25. Eleven Conference officers and 
sixty-four delegates were in attendance. The total 
number of auxiliaries in the Conference was forty-one, 
and thirty-five of these had delegates at the annual 
meeting. Besides the delegates, there were forty-five 
visitors attending the Conference, who came at their 
own expense for the privilege of attending the Con 
ference to listen and learn. 

A good program of inspirational addresses, stere- 
opticon addresses, and departmental drills had been ar 
ranged, and this was interspersed with business which 
was conducted in a parliamentary manner. Mrs. K. T. 
Yang, the President, presided with quiet dignity, and 
she was ably assisted by an enthusiastic corps of officers. 
All of the officers were Chinese, and their enthusiasm 
grew with their growing knowledge of the work. This 
year there was a distinct advance due to the return of 


Mrs. Tsiang and her report of the work of the Mis 
sionary Council and the local auxiliaries in America. 

Mrs. Tsiang attended the annual meeting 
of the Woman s Missionary Council in 1919, 
she being the first representative from the na 
tive peoples of the mission field who ever sat 
as a delegate in the governing body of one 
of the woman s missionary organizations of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. 




As the work in China grew and was 
crowned with success, the missionary force 
began to lift its eyes unto other fields. The 
General Board of Missions had opened work 
in Seoul, Korea, in 1896, and the Woman s 
Board of Foreign Missions followed in 1897. 
Since 1887 Mrs. J. P. Campbell had served in 
China, working in turn as music teacher, 
schoolroom principal, assistant in the hospi 
tal (for a time in full charge), and as evan 
gelistic worker among women. When the call 
came from the Woman s Board to pioneer 
work in Korea she responded gladly, taking 
with her an adopted Chinese daughter, Miss 
Dora Yui. They lived for a time in the home 
of Dr. C. F. Reid. Miss Yui soon learned the 
Korean language, and she and Dr. Reid took 
turns at holding Sunday services in Mrs. 
Reid s parlor. When Mr. Collier was trans 
ferred to Songdo, Mrs. Campbell and Miss 



Yui moved into the house which he had oc 
cupied in Seoul, remaining there for one year. 

Carolina Institute. 

At the end of that time the Baptist Mission, 
located in the northern part of Seoul, was 
withdrawing, and Mrs. Campbell, seeing that 
her present work was overlapping with that 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, purchased 
the Baptist property, which was located one 
mile from the General Board compound. It 
was necessary to act before authorization 
could be secured from her home Board, so she 
made the purchase at her own risk. Her 
faith was rewarded and, as in China, so in 
Korea, the first mission center w^as made pos 
sible through the gift of \vedding diamonds. 
This time Mrs. Toberman, of Los Angeles, 
was the giver. The Baptists left the house on 
Saturday evening, August I, 1898, and Mrs. 
Campbell, in company with a Korean woman 
carrying only a few necessary articles, went 
over to occupy it at once in order to save the 
property from possible damage. Miss Yui 
came on Sunday w r ith a fresh supply of food, 
and they moved in on Monday. The main 
building was a finely constructed Korean resi- 


dence, having been built for the Minister of 
Finance. There were other houses on the 
place, which were renovated for school pur 
poses. A small dispensary was first opened, 
which was financed by Mrs. Campbell herself. 
The real work, however, was begun in October, 
when the school was opened with three pupils. 
Mrs. Campbell writes: 

It was not long before we had twenty-one pupils ; 
these, however, were the children of the serving class 
only, those who were not wanted in the homes where 
their parents served. The very first pupil to enter our 
school was the little daughter of Dr. Reid s gateman, 
who later became one of the best and most intelligent 
Bible women in the mission. 

The women of Korea for five hunc red years had 
been denied education and any knowledge of the out 
side world. They were, of course, prejudiced against 
mission schools, but were not long in seeing that this 
educated lower class of girls would soon be the su 
perior women mentally. Because of this they gradually 
decided to enter the school and study side by side with 
the girls of the lower class. 

The school was of course primary, but, even so, re 
quired all of the inventive genius of the missionaries 
to devise ways and means to impart knowledge with 
out equipment. The Catechism and portions of the 
New Testament had been translated into the Korean 
vernacular ; except for these there were no Western 
books available. The difficulty was overcome by plac 
ing the lesson on the blackboard and having it copied 


on sheets Oi paper, a copy for each child, thus forming 

In a few years the school was full to over 
flowing, and several adjoining houses were 
purchased and new ones erected. There were 
no architects in Seoul and the men of the 
mission were rushed with their own work, so 
it devolved upon Mrs. Campbell and a Korean 
carpenter, who had never constructed any but 
mud cottages, to build a new eight-room, two- 
story, brick house. Mrs. Campbell says of 
this experience: 

The amusing incidents connected with this building 
and its construction would be a fit subject for a comedy 
en the screen. The palace towers were immediately in 
front of the school property, and superstition caused 
the emperor to believe that the misfortunes befalling 
his empire were caused by the presence of the Western 
ers. This two-story house, he thought, offended the 
gods of the air. Women attendants from the palace 
called in style and insisted upon looking from the upper 
story windows, their object evidently being to peer 
within the palace walls. 

The Sunday services were conducted in the 
rooms of this house until the chapel was 
built within the walls of the school compound. 
These were a great contrast to the demon 
worship carried on in the district. In 1899 
.Bishop Wilson baptized seven women in the 


Cha-kol home parlor. (Cha-kol was the name 
of the district in the northern section of the 
city, and the school compound was called the 
Cha-kol compound.) These seven women 
were the direct result of the woman s work 
and the nucleus of a new Church. In 1910 
this Church numbered five hundred converts 
from heathenism. The Sunday before Mrs. 
Campbell left for America, in 1910, ninety 
were baptized at the morning service. 

When the Russo-Japanese War broke out, 
United States ministers ordered all the mis 
sionaries to Seoul, where they were to remain 
until peace was established. Mrs. Campbell 
placed her school in the hands of the five 
workers then on the field and returned to the 
United States, where she helped in securing 
money to build a home in Songdo and to add 
to the property in Seoul. The school had at 
that time increased to an enrollment of sev 
enty-eight dormitory pupils and a number of 
day pupils. 

The location, however, was not satisfactory, 
as it was too near the canal. In 1907, there 
fore, a lot was purchased on a hill command 
ing a view of the city ; and several years later 
a home for missionaries, a dormitory for a 


limited number of boarders, and a day school 
were built. In 1916 Miss Lillian Nichols was 
placed in charge. Miss Ida Hankins and Miss 
Bertha Smith, each in turn, served as princi 
pal. Like the other schools of the Council, 
Carolina Institute made a strong impression 
upon the life of Korea; but the tragedy of the 
revolution in 1919 greatly endangered the 
work. Because of the Student Self-Determi- 
nation Movement, schools were opened and 
closed again and again during that year and 
the year following. It was a period of heavy 
strain and extreme anxiety for the mission 
aries, but their efforts to redeem and give to 
Korea the liberty and redemption of Jesus 
Christ never ceased. 

Union Bible School. 

The plans of the Council for enlargement 
of the work went forward in the face of all 
the difficulties, one of the most far-reaching 
being that of the Union Bible Training School 
in Seoul. The Methodist Episcopal Church 
was just completing a beautiful Bible school 
building, and at the meeting of the Council 
in 1920, it was voted to enter with them into 
a union plan upon a fifty-fifty basis in build- 


ing, equipment, and workers. This was made 
possible through Centenary funds. 


Hoist on Institute. 

In 1899 Miss Fannie Hinds and Miss Ar- 
rena Carroll were transferred from Mrs. 
Campbell s school to take charge of woman s 
work in Songdo. These missionaries had a 
bedroom each and, in addition, a kitchen and 
dining room. Class after class, numbering 
between fifty and sixty women, met in these 
bedrooms all during the day. Later, day 
schools for boys were opened in both the 
north and south wards of the city. The story 
of the establishment of the girls school is 
especially interesting. One day, when the mis 
sionaries were away attending a meeting, the 
Christian Koreans were having a picnic, at 
which time it was suggested that a school for 
girls was needed. A collection was accordingly 
taken, and a sufficient amount of money to 
pay a needed teacher for three months was 
handed over to the missionaries when they 
returned. As a result, in 1903, a school with 
a few pupils in attendance was opened in a 
Korean building, and one of Mrs. Campbell s 


best pupils from Seoul was employed as teach 

In 1905 a boarding school was opened in a 
conventional Korean house which, according 
to Korean custom, was placed near the foot 
of the hill. Like all Korean houses, the par 
titions were constructed of paper and could 
easily be removed. A sufficient number of 
partitions was taken out to form a room 
twenty-four by eight feet. For the accommo 
dation of the girls, heavy comforts were 
placed on the floor for sleeping purposes, and 
this apartment became the sleeping room for 
twenty-six girls. In the morning the bedding 
was aired, rolled up, and placed in an adjoin 
ing room. The sleeping apartment then 
became a breakfast room. At the close of 
the meal, the tables were removed and the 
same room became a recitation room. Thus, 
it is seen, that this one apartment served in 
turn as dormitory, dining room, and school 

In 1907 a gift was made by Dr. Staley, of 
Bristol, Tenn., which made possible the erec 
tion of a new building. The school was named 
Holston Institute because of this gift from the 
Holston Conference. The building was a 
handsome gray stone structure located on a 


commanding hill in the center of the city. 
When this location was purchased one of the 
wealthiest Korean men in the city called on 
Mrs. Campbell, telling her jestingly that she 
had secured the most notorious devil-worship 
ing site in Korea, that the demons would 
keep things so lively that it would frighten the 
children away. She replied that it would be a 
fine opportunity to prove the omnipotence of 
God, for he always vindicates the cause of 
those who trust him. 

The school soon became so crowded that a 
primary building was added in 1918. The 
next addition was that of a social-religious 
building, which became a necessity because of 
the Japanese laws excluding religious teach 
ings in the schools. The money for this was 
raised by the South Carolina women and 
named the Wightman Humbert Chapel. Miss 
Mabel Howell, Executive Secretary of Ori 
ental Fields, after her visit to Korea, said of 
Holston Institute: 

Holston Institute, in Songdo, with its six hundred 
girls before the revolution, stands at the head of the 
Council s educational system in Korea. It is a splen 
did school. As soon as possible the high-school de 
partment should be developed, and possibly a normal 
or kindergarten training school added. Miss Wagner 
has been a wise leader in this work through the years. 


Because of home conditions, the Principal, 
Miss Ella Sue Wagner, was compelled to re 
turn to the United States in 1920. The year 
previous, because of the revolution and the 
suffering of the Korean people, had been one 
of trial and tragedy. In her report of that 
year Miss Wagner says : 

Until March 1, the Higher Common School flour 
ished, and the work of the students and teachers was 
most satisfactory. Then suddenly and without warn 
ing the Independence Movement struck the country like 
a hurricane, and we found ourselves in the midst of 
trouble and confusion. Since that time the primary 
and kindergarten schools have been continued as usual, 
but for the past six months the higher work has been 
closed and the girls sent to their homes. 

The Mary Helm School. 

The Mary Helm School, opened in 1907, 
is unique in that it was established for young 
widows of the higher class who had ambi 
tions to attain lives of usefulness and yet 
were too old to enter the primary school with 
children, their ages varying from fourteen to 
eighteen. Three of these young girls made 
an appeal to Baron Yun and, as a result, 
Mrs. Cram, the wife of W. G. Cram, mission 
ary under appointment of the General Board, 


opened a school in her own home. The teach 
ing was done at night because of the custom 
which prohibited the girls from appearing on 
the street in the day time. After a time a 
home was secured in which a number of the 
pupils lived, buying their own food and doing 
their own work. The school continued to be 
taught in Mrs. Cram s sitting room until the 
Crams moved into their new home, at which 
time a place was provided for the purpose. 

The work was begun without funds, but 
when Mrs. Truehart made an appeal there 
were numbers of responses, among them a 
contribution from Miss Bennett which came 
with the suggestion that the school bear the 
namQ of Miss Mary Helm, former Editor of 
Our Homes. In 1909 the school was trans 
ferred to the compound of the Holston In 
stitute and placed under the management of 
the missionaries. It was later renamed the 
Mary Helm Industrial Department of Holston 
Institute, the change being made to meet 
Japanese regulations. At first it was con 
ducted in a Korean building, the same room 
being used for both bedroom and classroom 
purposes. In 1914, however, a better build 
ing was provided. 



Lucy Cuninggim Industrial School. 

In 1901 Miss Carroll and Miss Knowles 
were appointed to open work in Wonsan, 
property having been purchased from the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. It took them 
just one week to cross the country in Korean 
sedan chairs. One can imagine the hardship 
of riding, day after day, in the uncomfortable 
position of sitting on one s feet. The prop 
erty in which the school at Wonsan was be 
gun was attractive and beautiful, but it was 
necessary to build dormitories before the work 
could be made effective. The North Carolina 
Conference women contributed their thank 
offering to this enlargement and gave to the 
school the name Lucy Cuninggim in mem 
ory of one of their honored workers. The 
school prospered and soon outgrew its quar 
ters. Because of its distance from the church 
it was later deemed wise to move to another 
part of the city. A beautiful location near 
the church was selected, and a home for the 
missionaries and a building for the school 
were erected. The South Georgia Conference 
furnished the money, but the school retained 
its original name. In 1917 the enrollment 


numbered 127 and the seven branches, or 
county schools, numbered 132, making a total 
enrollment of 269. 

In 1917 the plan of the work was changed. 
The principal, Miss Hallie Buie, writes: 

The greatest change in our work this year has been 
that of giving up the advanced grades of the Lucy 
Cuninggim Girls School, in Wonsan, and of establish 
ing the industrial school for girls and women in its 
stead. When one sees the life of drudgery and help 
lessness led by most of the women and girls in Korea, 
the need of a school that will teach them something 
whereby they can earn their own living and be self- 
respecting and independent is keenly felt. In the fall 
of 1916, at our annual mission meeting, it was decided 
that, if the Council so granted, the Lucy Cuninggim 
Girls School building in Wonsan be used for a mis 
sion industrial school for girls and women and that 
the girls in the high-school department in Wonsan be 
sent to Holston Institute, in Songdo. This decision met 
with the approval of Misses Bennett and Head, who 
were then on the field. 

In the spring of 1917 a committee was appointed to 
investigate the situation and to determine just what 
kind of an industrial school we should have. The 
committee, after thorough investigation, unanimously 
came to the following conclusions: (1) That at first 
only one line of work should be undertaken and that 
we proceed to make the training in that line as efficient 
as possible ; (2) that said line should be one that would 
be a benefit to the women of the whole territory occu 
pied by our mission; (3) That it should be a line that 
would assure us the support and confidence of the gov 
ernment as well as one that would be in harmony with 


their plans for the development of the Korean people. 
We decided that nothing would so nearly satisfy the 
position set forth in the above three principles as seri 
culture. As soon as these three plans were indorsed 
by the Council, steps were taken to carry them out. 
In March, 1918, the mulberry trees were all planted 
and are growing beautifully. The school was opened 
in April, 1918, and we soon had an enrollment of twenty 
pupils. The forenoons are spent in study and the after 
noons in work. The literary work is divided into three 
grades, with a special or preparatory year for the ones 
who have had very little chance to study. The indus 
trial work is also divided into a course of three years. 

The newly organized school ran only a few 
months, however, and was closed on account 
of the revolution. Concerning the future 
Miss Howell says: 

There is a very great field for industrial education 
in Korea, and this institution needs special care. The 
greatest need, and an immediate one. is a missionary 
trained along textile lines. Such a one must be found 
and trained if necessary. 

The Alice Cobb Bible School. 

The Alice Cobb Bible School was located 
on the same compound with the Lucy Cun- 
inggim. The building, furnished by the 
South Georgia Conference and named in hon 
or of Mrs. Cobb, at one time Foreign Depart 
ment Secretary of the Council, was construct 
ed in simple Korean style, but appropriate to 


the purpose for which it was designed. Be 
fore the building was erected the nucleus of 
the school had been formed by the little band 
of women who were taught by Mrs. J. B. 
Ross, formerly Miss Knowles, a missionary 
under appointment, in her own home. Miss 
Kate Cooper, principal of the Alice Cobb Bi 
ble School, says of the institution: 

The winter months I spend in Bible institute work, 
which is always a joy, for I love to teach the Bible. 
We work together with the Canadian Presbyterians in 
Wonsan, and the missionaries who give their time to 
the institute are splendid Bible teachers. One course 
covers five years of three months each. Thirty-three 
books of the Bible we teach in full and the other half 
by outlines. During the time the women are not study 
ing they have an intermediate reading course, which 
consists of the books of the Bible they are to take the 
following term in outlines. Besides the Bible, we teach 
writing, hygiene, simple geography, arithmetic, and 
singing. We have weekly lectures from Korean pas 
tors and missionaries -on missions, Church history, and 
other helpful subjects. In 1918 we had an enrollment 
of fifty-one, nine of whom were graduated in April. 
It is a rule of our mission that our Bible women must 
graduate from the institute before they can be accepted 
as fully qualified Bible women. Some of the women 
leaders in the country Churches are those who have 
studied at our institute. It is our aim to have at least 
one woman from each Church to study and go back 
to her own congregation to take charge of the Bible 



The great revival which broke out in Korea 
in 1904 is of special interest to the women of 
Southern Methodism because of its origin. 
Miss Knowles went to Korea filled with a burn 
ing zeal for the Master s work. She felt in 
starting her work in Wonsan that they, as mis 
sionaries, were not able to grasp the great 
spiritual privileges which were before them. 
She and others formed a compact to pray 
daily that God would give the missionaries 
power to bring about a great revival. Dr. 
Hardy was asked to lead the missionaries of 
Wonsan in a week of Bible study. As he 
prepared for this work, a deep conviction of 
his own need overpowered him and he spent 
one whole night on his knees in prayer. At 
early dawn there came to him a great blessing 
and he arose from his knees filled with a new 
power, which was recognized by all who met 
him that morning. He rang the chapel "bell 
and called the Korean Christians together, 
telling them of the night s experience, con 
fessing his own former lack of power. Those 
present, grasping his meaning, saw the empti 
ness of their own lives and prayed for forgive 
ness. Days of prayer and confession followed. 
Finally there came upon them such a bap- 


tism of power that they went forth from piace 
to place and led others into the same experi 
ence. The revival swept throughout the 
Church in Korea and thousands were con 

The revival spirit in Korea made the wom 
an s evangelistic work one of the most suc 
cessful features of the mission. In Seoul 
much of this work was done in connection 
with the Churches, and under the wise lead 
ership of Mrs. Campbell and Miss Mamie 
Myers it took on many institutional features. 
Out from Songdo, the greatest Southern Meth 
odist center in Korea, there radiated into the 
country districts a great spirit of evangelism. 

One of the most successful evangelistic ef 
forts was carried on in Choon Chun. This 
work was opened in 1911 by Miss Laura Ed 
wards and Miss Alice Dean Noyes. Their 
first trip into this district, which required 
three days, was made on pack horses. All their 
bedding, food, cooking utensils, and cloth 
ing went to make up the packs, which they 
carried with them. The rural evangelistic 
work was conducted on the circuit plan, each 
missionary caring for a certain number of 
charges and the Bible women going out two 
by two. 


From the very beginning, a strong emphasis 
was placed upon rural evangelistic work, while 
the schools received the emphasis in the great 
city centers. When Miss Howell visited the 
field in 1919-20 she urged an immediate for 
ward movement in city evangelism in Songdo, 
Seoul, and Wonsan. City centers had been 
contemplated for a number of years, and at the 
Council meeting in 1920 Centenary askings 
were made available to go forward with these 
buildings in Seoul and Songdo. Provision 
was also made for the purchase of land in 
Wonsan upon which a building was to be erect 
ed in the near future. 


One of the most hopeful results of the mis 
sionary work in Korea was evidenced by the 
organization of missionary societies in the na 
tive Churches. The Bible women, as they 
itinerated from place to place, gave these so 
cieties special attention. Special programs 
were prepared each year by some one of the 
missionaries. Most of the society members 
tithed or gave systematically. One-tenth of 
all their collections went to the work in Africa 
and the rest of the money was used for the 
support of native Bible women in the heathen 


villages of Korea. The following is a letter 
sent by the women of the Wonsan District to 
the Woman s Missionary Society in Africa: 

WONSAN, KOREA, April 5, 1920. 

To the Friends of the Woman s Missionary Society in 
Africa Greetings from the Woman s Missionary So 
ciety in Wonsan, Korea. 

We, the servants of Jesus Christ, according to the 
will of God, from our District Society in Hamkyung 
South Province, Wonsan, Korea, send to all the saints 
in Africa, even to all who are in Christ Jesus, our 
heartiest greetings with the hope that you have received 
from God, the Father, and his Son, Jesus Christ, the 
grace and peace he has promised to all who are faith 
ful, and that your hope is founded on an eternal foun 
dation, and that your soul has found eternal salvation. 
With the wish that you may sing the everlasting songs 
and praise God through all eternity we, even though 
we are separated from you by miles and miles, pray 
for you and feel that Christ is hearing and answering 
in your behalf. 

Our Saviour, Jesus Christ, came into this world 
nineteen hundred and twenty years ago and gave him 
self once to die on the cress for the sins of all the 
world. Thus bearing the sins of all mankind, he made 
all who believe on him to become the children of the 
Holy God, and to all the saints alike he pours forth 
his Holy Spirit in order that they may have the power 
to do his will. Following the example of our Lord, 
we, too, should love with all our hearts, soul, and 
strength and serve our God as he directs. Let us give 
all we have to him and love him with all our hearts. 

Like Peter and John, even though we have not the 
gold and silver to give in the name of Jesus Christ, 


we can do many deeds of mercy. As a result of the 
Centenary Movement at this time the work of the Lord 
is daily growing in strength, and the faith of many is 
becoming stronger. Also patience, temperance, brother 
ly love, and unity are increasing in force. For all this 
we cannot give thanks enough. 

But notwithstanding all the joys and blessings that 
God so freely bestows here in Korea, we are under 
going a severe trial, and to all of you who love us we 
earnestly beseech that you will pray unceasingly to the 
Father of light, who is altogether just and holy. We 
hope you will pray much and often, for we need your 
prayers. Like the precious stones hidden away in the 
mountains that you have to polish for the brilliant 
colors to appear and like the trees that grow better for 
the pruning, God means that all our trials shall work 
together for good, and he is now refining us that his 
glory may appear. 

Although we are sending only the small amount of 
$11.93, we hope you will receive it in love and use it 
as our Lord Jesus Christ may direct. 

If we look at the world, there is so much sorrow on 
every hand ; but if we endure as seeing Him who is 
invisible, we shall bring forth the fruits of righteous 
ness and peace. Our hope is in the Captain of our 
salvation, who is also the Author and Finisher of our 

We pray for you that you may bring many of your 
African sisters to Jesus Christ and that they may re 
ceive the crown of life which Jesus has promised to 
all who are true and faithful. This is our prayer for 
you, so we will close with this message for this time. 

With love, 




IN 1885 the General Board of Missions 
passed a resolution authorizing the establish 
ment of a mission in Japan. In July of the 
following year Dr. and Mrs. J. W. Lambuth 
and Dr. O. A. Dukes arrived in Kobe. Miss 
Maud Bonnell says of this adventure: "It 
took hearts made brave by long years of serv 
ice in China to turn to a new country, where 
the people and the language were wholly un 
known. Go ye into all the world and preach 
the gospel to the whole creation must have 
sounded in their ears and nerved them to the 
new undertaking." The territory chosen for 
this task comprised the ten provinces bordering 
on the Inland Sea and on the three islands of 
Hondo, Shikoku, and Kyushu, which, in the 
census of 1909, had a population of approxi 
mately 13,000,000. Upon landing in Kobe 
the missonaries made their home at No. 47 in 
the foreign concession and began their work 
by teaching English to a few Japanese boys 
in a night school. 



Mrs. Lambuth, who had pioneered woman s 
work in China, undertook with the same tire 
less devotion and energy to open the way for 
the women in Japan. That hers was no easy 
task is shown by these words from her son, 
Bishop J. W. Lambuth: 

There were no women who seemed to be accessible, 
and it was months before any Japanese woman united 
with the Church. A male cook, who was a Congrega- 
tionalist, led the morning prayer in the family circle 
until the new missionaries had acquired the language. 
One of his petitions, which he made daily, was : "O 
Lord, have mercy on these poor Methodists and enlarge 
their borders, for they have no women in their mem 

In the year following her arrival in Kobe, 
Mrs. Lambuth opened a day school for women 
with eleven in attendance. She also organized 
a weekly class for women and children. Three 
years later, in 1890, the Japan Mission passed 
a resolution calling for the establishment of a 
Bible school in Kobe. In accordance with this 
action, the Woman s Bible Training School 
was opened in 1891 with six pupils in at 
tendance. Mrs. Lambuth had supervision, but 
Miss May Bice (later Mrs. W. A. Davis) 
was placed in charge. The records show that 
the few years which followed were filled with 


difficulties, the school even being closed a part 
of the time. 

On the same compound with the Bible 
school, Mrs. Lambuth opened three other 
schools namely, Industrial School, where 
women were taught embroidery, sewing, mu 
sic, and the Bible; Kobe Institute, where the 
children of Asiatic and European parentage 
were taught; and Palmore Institute, which 
was a night school for women. In 1899 the 
Industrial School was closed, and in 1905 
Kobe Institute also was closed, both for lack 
of teachers. Palmore Institute was continued, 
however, but in 1907 was provided with quar 
ters of its own. Thus the compound was left 
free for the use of the Bible school. 

In 1899 Miss Ida Worth was made Prin 
cipal and continued in this position until 1905. 
She was succeeded by Miss Maud Bonnell, 
who remained at the head of the institution 
for ten years. Her strong personality and 
her great spiritual power made these years 
count large for the kingdom of righteousness 
in Japan. 

The early evangelistic work for women in 
Japan consisted of special evangelistic serv 
ices, Bible classes, mothers meetings, cooking 
classes, English and industrial classes, Sun- 


day schools, and kindergartens. The women 
who could give their entire time were so few 
that the services of the missionaries wives 
and the teachers in the schools were a neces 
sity. These sought contact with the women 
of Japan through every possible avenue. 

In 1891 Miss Kate Harlan, working in 
Yamaguchi, Japan, wrote: 

We proposed to teach the women anything they 
wished to learn crocheting, knitting, foreign cooking, 
English anything to induce them to come, that we 
might have an opportunity to teach them the one thing 
of importance, the one thing they need to learn ; but, 
alas ! the one thing of which they do not feel their 
need, the Word of God, the truth as it is in Christ 
Jesus our Lord. They were hard to reach, slow to 
come, few in number, and very irregular. Frequently 
as soon as one began to take any interest the head of 
the house would assert his authority, and she was not 
allowed to come any more. 


The work of the General Board in its other 
departments was of the highest rank, but its 
woman s work was wholly inadequate. This 
is easily understood when we consider the 
lack of equipment, the small working force on 
the field, and the absence of an administrative 
force of women at the home base. On ac 
count of this lack the entire mission was being 



crippled. The prayer of the cook, "O Lord, 
have mercy on these poor Methodists, for they 
have no women in their membership," was in 
reality still the prayer of many hearts as late 
as the year 1914. 

The Japan Mission had continued to entreat 
the General Board to send out single women 
as evangelistic workers, but that year found 
only two engaged exclusively in this work. 
It was then that the mission unanimously de 
cided to ask the Woman s Missionary Council 
to enter Japan. Bishop Atkins visited Japan 
that year, and the following year, 1915, at 
tended the meeting of the Woman s Mission 
ary Council, making an eloquent appeal for 
the women and children of Japan and pleading 
for the Council s entrance into Japan with its 
gifts of money and workers and its admin 
istrative talents. The result was that the fol 
lowing action was taken: 

We recommend: 1. That the Woman s Missionary 
Council assume the support of the woman s evangelis- 
tice work in Japan on condition that the Board of Mis 
sions continue its usual appropriation to Fhat field. 
2. That the Council recommend two new missionaries 
for that field. 

Miss Annette Gist and Miss Charlie Hol 
land were appointed that same year as mis- 


sionaries to Japan. Miss Ida Worth, Miss 
Maud Bonnell, Miss Nellie Bennett, Miss 
Annie Belle Williams, and Miss Ethel New- 
comb were transferred from the Board of 
Missions, General Work, to the Woman s 
Missionary Council. Miss Mabel Whitehead 
and Miss Katherine Hatcher were sent out in 
1917 and Miss Jean Callahan, Miss Rubie Van 
Hooser, and Miss Mary Searcy in 1920. 

When the Council entered Japan Miss 
Maud Bonnell was still in charge of the Lam- 
buth Bible School. The following year, how 
ever, she came home on her furlough, much 
broken in health, and was never able to return. 
Miss Ida Shannon, of the Hiroshima Girls 
School, was made acting principal. Her re 
port of that year says: 

The first Bible woman was graduated in 1905. Up 
to 1915 the school has graduated thirty-seven, of whom 
twenty-two are in active service and five are wives of 
preachers. The present enrollment is fifteen. The 
women stay in the school three years, studying the 
Bible and kindred subjects, music, and practical work. 
The change that takes place in them during that time 
is nothing short of marvelous. After they go out into 
service, the chief need is for better and closer super 
vision on the part of women missionaries. 

In 1917 Miss Annie Belle Williams was 


made principal. In her report of 1919 she 

This year has added two to the list of graduates 
which before numbered fifty. The opening of another 
school year in April brought in six new students, mak 
ing our number twelve. The new class was an interest 
ing one for several reasons: (1) Not one of them came 
from our own missionary territory; (2) they repre 
sented four different missions ; and (3) most of them 
had had some experience in a professional or business 
way, two of them as teachers and one as a nurse. Five 
of them are on scholarships. The cost of keeping up 
this school seems entirely out of proportion to the 
small number of students, but we want you to think 
of it as an evangelistic center as well as a school. 
Counting our own Sunday schools, we touch ten dif 
ferent centers in Kobe and its suburbs. 

The 1920 enrollment showed that the num 
ber of students had increased to twenty. At 
this time enlargement of the school was for 
a number of reasons imperative: first, the in 
adequacy of the buildings and their unsanitary 
condition; second, the movement on foot to 
move the kindergarten from Hiroshima to the 
Bible school; third, the demand for a union 
institution; fourth, the action of the General 
Conference of the Methodist Church of Japan 
creating a licensed order of women evangelists. 
In 1919, when Miss Mabel Howell, Executive 
Secretary of the Orient, was on the field, the 


Japan Mission passed resolutions asking that 
the Council embrace in its plan the training 
of kindergarten teachers and that the proposed 
new school be located at Osaka. It was also re 
quested that the Northern Methodists and the 
Canadian Methodists be asked to unite with 
the Woman s Missionary Council in the build 
ing and conduct of the school in order that 
the whole of Japan Methodism might be 
served. It was agreed, ^however, that the 
building should not be delayed awaiting the 
response of the other Methodisms, 

In its 1920 session the Council adopted the 
following recommendations: 

(1) That the Council accept the responsibility for 
the Kindergarten Normal Training School in Hiro 
shima, approve the plan of uniting it with the Lambuth 
Memorial School, and establish an enlarged school of 
high grade for training Christian workers. (2) That 
the enlarged school be located in Osaka and be known 
as the Lambuth Training School for Christian Work 
ers. (3) That as the Hiroshima Kindergarten Normal 
Training School is under the supervision of Miss Mar 
garet Cook, the Council request the Board of Missions, 
General Work, to release Miss Margaret Cook to the 
Council for the purpose of assisting in establishing the 
enlarged school proposed for Osaka, and that the Sec 
retary of the Orient present this request to the Board 
of Missions. (4) That the $8,000 already on the field 
for the purchase of land for the new Lambuth Train 
ing School and the $18,000 Centenary askings for the 


evangelistic plant at Osaka be combined into one fund 
to be used for the building of the new training school. 

Further action was taken, transferring an 
accrued fund of $4,479.50 already on the field 
to the building fund, this amount to be used 
for the proposed chapel in the Lambuth Train 
ing School to be known as the Maud Bonnell 

At the meeting of the Board of Missions 
that year the request for the transfer of Miss 
Margaret Cook was granted, it being recog 
nized that a better policy would be to train 
the kindergarten workers and the Bible women 
in the same school. Miss Katherine Hatcher, 
who had been the Council s representative in 
the Hiroshima Training School, was also 
transferred. The removal of the Bible school 
to Osaka, only one hour s ride by trolley 
from Kobe, was decided upon because of 
Osaka s being a large industrial city and hence 
well suited as a demonstration center. 

Concerning the kindergartens and the evan 
gelistic centers, Miss Maud Bonnell writes 
shortly after they were turned over to the 
Woman s Missionary Council by the Board 
of Missions, General Work: 

There are six kindergarteners in charge of our 
women at various points. Three of these are in Kobe, 


two at Oita and Beppu, and the other is in Yoshida, 
on the island of Shikoku. Oita is as yet our only 
woman s evangelistic station. Miss Ida M. Worth (St. 
Louis Conference) went there in 1896. She began 
teaching English and Bible to the young people and 
visiting, with her helper, in the homes. Soon she 
opened a kindergarten, which has grown steadily in 
efficiency and favor. Visits were paid to the outlying 
stations, where cooking classes and other women s and 
children s meetings were held in the chapels or in rented 
rooms. Miss Annie Belle Williams (South Carolina 
Conference) went to the station in 1910, and with her 
personal helper the force was doubled. Soon a kinder 
garten was opened in Beppu, and other Sunday schools 
and children s meetings were conducted weekly. Eight 
stations were regularly visited. Groups of young 
women working in the telephone exchange and in a 
yarn factory, where fifteen hundred are employed, have 
been reached. 

Because of the lack of sufficient working 
force and because of conditions caused by the 
World War, the Council was unable to enter 
into any greatly enlarged plans. In 1920, 
however, the number of kindergartens had in 
creased to fifteen, a home for missionaries 
had been built at Oita, and the plant itself, 
containing a home for native workers, was 
being constructed with the first available Cen 
tenary money. Plans were being projected 
for the building of the new Bible school at 
Osaka and for the utilization of the old 
buildings in Kobe as a Christian social cen- 


ter. The Centenary askings included a suf 
ficient sum of money for the building of evan 
gelistic centers in thirteen cities and the sup 
port of two missionaries and a number of 
Bible women for each of these places. By 
action of the Council, in 1920, the evangelis 
tic centers were given the name "lan-no-Ie," 
meaning "The House of Comfort and Peace." 


In 1920 Miss Mabel Howell reported con 
cerning the Woman s Missionary Society of 
Japan as follows: 

The women of the West Japan Conference are al 
ready organized into a Conference Society. This is the 
Conference in which our work is located. The district 
and local work is pretty well developed. The two Con 
ferences unite their gifts in the support of a mission 
ary, Mr. Kihara, in Siberia. The women of the two 
Conferences of the Japan Methodist Church are taking 
steps to unite organically so as to form one society for 
all Japan. 



Oh, could we love with the love that pours 

On this great day through all our doors, 

Could we gather all in a world embrace, 

Whatever the creed, whatever the race, 

Not once, nor twice, but all the time, 

For ev ry need and ev ry clime 

The love that knows all aims as one, 

All peoples kin beneath the sun 

What a different world this world would be ! 

For we should see as the Christ would see, 

If only a magic way were found 

To make us human the whole year round ! 

From "The Whole Year Christmas" 




Collegia Piracicabano. 
ALMOST simultaneously with the opening of 
work in China there began to loom large be 
fore the newly organized Woman s Mission 
ary Society the urgency of the need in Mexico 
and Brazil. Indeed, at the very first meet 
ing of the General Executive Association in 
1879, there was made a contingent appropria 
tion of five hundred dollars for Brazil. The 
second annual report of the Corresponding 
Secretary says: 

After much correspondence, it was shown that the 
appropriation made last May could be judiciously ap 
plied in aiding the school of Miss Newman at Piraci- 

This school had been opened the year pre 
vious by the daughter of the Rev. J. E. New 
man, an appointee of the General Board of 
Missions. This same report quotes the fol 
lowing from a letter from the field: 

Miss Newman s school in Piracicaba has fifteen 
pupils three Americans, one English, and eleven Bra- 



zilians. Plan the Rev. J. E. Newman to remain as 
ostensible head of the school for protection. Desired 
appropriation for school, $1,000. Reasons we have 
an infant mission in Piracicaba under an ex-priest. 
If he is faithful, we will have a Church there before 
the close of 1880. 

At the second annual meeting of /the General 
Executive Association of the Woman s Mis 
sionary Society one thousand dollars was ap 
propriated. The school, however, was sus 
pended during that year on account of the 
marriage of Miss Annie Newman to Rev. J. 
J. Ransom and the failing health of her sis 
ter. Mrs. Ransom died within a few months 
after her marriage, and the Rev. J. J. Ran 
som, returning to this country, plead with the 
women of the Executive Committee to send 
a missionary at once to reopen the school. 
The result was the immediate appointment of 
Miss Martha Watts who became the pioneer 
representative of the woman s work in Brazil. 

She reopened the school in September of 
1 88 1 in a rented house of ten rooms. Eight 
een desks were purchased, but on the open 
ing day only one pupil appeared. The Jesu 
its had begun to fear the entrance cf the 
Protestants and had pledged fifteen thousand 
Collars for the establishment of a girls 


school. In spite of the discouraging begin 
ning, the report of 1883 says: 

The Collegio Piracicabano has become an established 
fact. It is steadily gaining the favor of the people and 
is partly self-sustaining. The corner stone of the new 
building was laid on February 8, with imposing cere 
monies in which several prominent men of the country 
took part 

The new building was opened in 1884 with 
forty-five pupils. The number soon increased 
to seventy. 

Miss Watts was to Brazil, in those early 
pioneer days, what Miss Haygood was to 
China. From the first she had courted the 
friendship and influence of Drs. Manuel and 
Prudente de Moraes Barros, both of whom 
were federal senators. Dr. Prudente later 
became President of Brazil. Miss Watts had 
adopted in her school the public school meth 
ods of the United States; and while Dr. Pru 
dente was Governor of the State of Sao Paulo, 
Collegio Piracicabano served as his model for 
shaping the school system of that State, which 
later became the most advanced, educational 
ly, throughout Brazil. These leaders not on y 
looked to Miss Watts for counsel and advice, 
but were influential in sending the daughters 
of the leading families to her to be educated. 


In time, Collegio Piraciabana outgrew the 
beautiful spacious building which had been lo 
lated in the center of the town, and to en 
large its usefulness the Martha Watts Annex 
was built. This building provided an assem 
bly room, classrooms, and space for the kin 
dergarten school. Miss M. L. Gibson says: 

The college and the annex together present the most 
imposing structure in the city and is a splendid monu 
ment to the woman whose name it bears. 

Miss Lily Stradley took charge in 1898, 
and through her high aims and ability the 
school at Piracicaba has been kept one of the 
leading girls schools in all Brazil. The ef 
ficiency of the work and its hold on the peo 
ple is set forth in the following from Dr. 
Browning, Educational Secretary of the Com 
mittee on Latin America: 

There is a fine student body. The premises are kept 
in beautiful order, and the buildings, modeled after the 
old Southern mansions and set back from the street 
among palms and other semitropical plants, present a 
very pleasing appearance to the passer-by. I visited 
a number of the classes and, so far as one can tell from 
such a superficial examination, I judge that good work 
is being done. The dormitories were clean and well 
aired, the beds well made, and the closets full o f cloth 
ing neatly hung in order. A pleasing touch was that 
of finding in almost all the beds, especially in the dor- 


mitory of the small girls, one or more dolls neatly 
dressed and seemingly patiently awaiting the return of 
the little mothers from the tasks of the day. The 
atmosphere of the school was most attractive, the rela 
tion between the teacher and the student seeming to 
be of the closest and most friendly sort. There is an 
air of home life about the entire establishment that 
cannot but have a very wholesome influence on the girls 
who are preparing to go out from its classes as wives 
and mothers or as members of society. There was a 
public meeting at night held in the school auditorium 
which was attended by the students and teachers as 
well as by a considerable number of teachers from the 
town. There are in Piracicaba two other very impor 
tant institutions the Normal School, wifh equipment 
equal to that of Teacher s College in New York, and 
the State Agricultural College, one of the best I have 
ever seen as regards equipment and beauty of grounds 
and there was a good attendance from the faculty of 
these schools as well as from the townspeople. 


The determined purpose of the women to 
establish work in Rio de Janeiro, the capital 
city of Brazil, has continued to hold through 
out a whole generation amid almost unparal 
leled failures and discouragements. In the 
report of 1885 we read: 

A few words only will suffice in regard to the Rio 
College. It must now be generally known that this 
college is only a projected though determined institu 
tion. The plan is to build up a first-class college for 
the girls in Rio de Janeiro, the capital of the empire. 


The college must be planned on a broad and liberal 
basis, providing a full literary and scientific course 
and giving from its incipiency due prominence to 
Christian culture. 

Thirty-five years later we find this school 
still a "projected though determined" insti 

The following story shows the leading of 
God through a series of disappointments and 
seeming failures. In 1884 the one-hundredth 
anniversary of Methodism was celebrated by 
gifts for the extension of the kingdom into 
foreign lands. One of the objects selected 
by the committee, appointed by the General 
Conference, was a college to be located in 
Rio de Janeiro for the girls of high-class 
families. At the urgency of the committee, 
the Woman s Board (at the time only five 
years old) ventured to ask the women of the 
Church for $50,000 for this purpose. The 
General Board promised hearty support and co 
operation. The offering proved to be only 
$16,229.73, and it was soon discovered that 
the "hearty cooperation" on the part of the 
General Board did not mean financial aid. 
The women were discouraged and wished to 
abandon the plan and appropriate the funds 
to other work. When Bishop Granbery vis- 


ited the field in 1887, however, he urged the 
women to push forward in spite of the odds 
which were against them. In accordance with 
his recommendation, Miss Mary Bruce, who 
had been a teacher in Piracicaba, was appointed 
to Rio de Janeiro. Some months later beau 
tiful property on Larangeiras (street of the 
orange trees) was purchased. Concerning this 
property it was said: "The altitude, salubrious 
air, and distance from the crowded part of 
the city make it almost a sanitarium when 
yellow fever is prevailing. No case has ever 
occurred there." 

Miss Bruce encountered difficulties in pro 
curing a license, but in her annual report she 
writes in high hope: 

Though the children did not swarm in at the opening 
of the school, yet we are not discouraged. We have 
fourteen pupils, eleven of whom are boarders. It will 
require patience and waiting to develop the work here 
and make a place as Miss Watts has done in Piraci 
caba ; but in no spirit of boasting we believe our time 
will come when we will be known and trusted and our 
efforts crowned with success. 

Just before the time to begin the second 
session, there came upon the beautiful city a 
severe scourge of yellow fever. Schools were 
suspended and our missionaries were stricken 
with fever. So great was the calamity that 


the General Secretary says: "Of our mission 
aries in Rio de Janeiro it may be said as of 
the Jews of old, they were scattered and 
peeled. " 

After this a brave effort was made to con 
tinue the work, but pure water was found to 
be insufficient and the expense of drainage so 
exorbitant that early in 1893 the school at 
Rio de Janeiro was closed, it having been 
demonstrated that the frequent yellow fever 
scourages made it impossible to establish a per 
manent work. It was the purpose of the 
Board to continue its work through a day 
school and special work among the women. 
Accordingly, the property on the heights was 
sold and reinvested in a day school building 
for Rio de Janeiro and in the establishment 
of a boarding school at Petropolis. 

Miss Lulu Ross opened the day school 
under the handicaps of sickness and the neces 
sity of seeking new quarters. The following 
year Mrs. H. C. Tucker, formerly Miss Ella 
Granbery, took charge. This was the year 
of revolution, and throughout the bombard 
ment of the city the workers stood at their 
post despite the falling of shot and shell in 
the streets. That year seventy-two pupils 
were enrolled. 


After the school had been discontinued for 
eight months it was again opened by Miss 
Layona Glenn in 1896. Miss Glenn planned 
for a system of day schools, and for a number 
of years three were in session: the Jardim 
School, taught in the Jardim Church, the Cat- 
tete in connection with the Cattete Church, 
and the Collegio Americano Fluminense. (It 
will be remembered that "collegio" merely 
means school.) The last named was finally 
closed in 1915, because suitable rented prop 
erty could not be secured. 

The most tragic event in the history of the 
woman s missionary work in Brazil was the 
failure to hold the vantage ground once held 
in the capital of the republic, beautiful Rio. 
At the closing session of the Woman s Board 
of Foreign Missions, held in 1910, a pathetic 
appeal came from the entire missionary body 
in Brazil, pleading for a suitable building in 
Rio de Janeiro as headquarters for work in 
the republic. They wrote: "One of three 
things is inevitable: the school must die a lin 
gering death, it must be closed at once, or 
the Board must put it in position to compete 
favorably with the other schools in the city." 

They asked for a committee to consider 
locations and prices and to consult agents and 


architects before submitting plans, They 
pleaded that the work in Rio de Janeiro be 
considered first. 

In response the Board voted: 

That the Executive Committee be authorized to nego 
tiate a loan of $100,000 if, in their judgment, it were 
considered wise to purchase the property in Rio de 
Janeiro for which that amount has been appropriated 
contingently, and that $25,000 of this amount be paid 
annually to the bank to liquidate the indebtedness. 

A month later the Woman s Board of For 
eign Missions was merged with the Board of 
Missions. At the first session of the Wom 
an s Missionary Council, April, 1911, the 
President, Miss Bennett, said in her message: 

The Foreign Department of this Council, by its ac 
tion last year, is committed to the establishment of a 
girls boarding school in the city of Rio de Janeiro. 
Every reasonable effort ought to be put forth to accom 
plish this work within the next twelve months. 

At that time it was voted to hold a jubilee 
in cooperation with the women of other boards. 
The object of the offering was to be for the still 
"projected and determined" boarding school 
for high-class girls in Rio de Janeiro. When 
the result of the gifts proved to be $25,962.08, 
it seemed that the vision of the years was about 
to be realized. 


In 1913 Miss Bennett and Miss Gibson vis 
ited Brazil, spending four months in Rio de 
Janeiro in search of suitable property. Be 
cause of high prices, the difficulty of securing 
a suitable place, and the breaking out of the 
great World War, the long hope of the years 
was again deferred. However, in 1919, Bish 
op Moore, on his second visit to Brazil, suc 
ceeded in securing a site upon which was lo 
cated a beautiful building suited to the begin 
nings of a first-class woman s college, the 
situation of the property being such as to 
command the attention of the entire city. 
Hope again ran high, for the "projected and 
determined" college for high-class girls in 
Rio de Janeiro, it seemed, was about to be 
come a reality, and this hope was changed to 
"glad fruition" when at its session in 1920, 
the Council authorized the erection of the 
administration building for the Bennett Col 
lege at Rio, plans and specifications to be 
made and submitted at an early date. 

Juiz DE FORA. 
Collegia Mineiro. 

The difficulties which met the brave mis 
sionaries in Rio de Janeiro and closed for 
them the doors of opportunity pushed them 


out into other fields. In 1891 Miss Mary 
Bruce spoke to the Woman s Board in session 
concerning the two strategic centers of Pira- 
cicaba and Rio de Janeiro and urged the open 
ing of work in a third, Juiz de Fora. This 
was a city of 21,000 people, which had al 
ready a church and a well-established school 
for boys, Granbery College. The bishop in 
charge also urged the opening of a school for 
girls, and the result was that in 1892 Miss 
Bruce and eleven of her pupils were trans 
ferred from Rio de Janeiro to Juiz de Fora, 
and Collegio Mineiro was begun. The suc 
cess of the school from the beginning was al 
most without parallel in the history of our 
boarding schools. Children from the high- 
class families were entered, and soon the poor 
ly equipped rented houses were outgrown. 
Miss Perkinson writes in 1897: "Situated as 
we are we have nothing to recommend us but 
earnest and faithful work." 

Thirty-eight pupils were enrolled at that 

In 1900 she says: "We have been fortunate 
in finding a much more convenient and com 
modious house, \vhich costs us the same rent 
as the one that Bishop Galloway said was 
next to the worst thing he had ever seen in 


Southern Methodism. Life in general seems 
broader and better here." 

The event in 1904 that will always stand 
out prominently in the history of the school 
was the purchase of property. The house 
that was occupied was to be sold at public 
auction, according to the will of the owner, 
who left it to his widow during her lifetime. 
Her death forced the sale. The missionaries 
longed to purchase it, prayed to God, and 
wrote to the Foreign Secretary, asking permis 
sion to bid on it. Four days before the sale 
the cable came: "Bid up to eight thousand 
dollars." They bid and secured the house. 
The grounds were valuable, in the very heart 
of the city, and the house was large, though 
old. A prominent physician, a Catholic, but 
a liberal man, said: "The Lord s hand was cer 
tainly in that purchase, for a. number of men 
were anxious to buy the property, and yet 
they did not go to the sale." The missionaries 
and their friends united in a praise service 
on Thanksgiving Dry. 

The purchase gratified the town, and many civic im 
provements followed, among which were a new modern 
railroad station, an electric street railway, with Ameri 
can cars, which proved a boon to teachers and pupils 
as well as to the public, and new sidewalks laid around 
the school. 


Many alterations were made, adding to the comfort 
of the college home. A large open gymnasium was 
built from the material of a small house on the back 
lot. Beside this building was the basket ball ground. 
Another new feature was the rose garden, where the 
queen of flowers revels in beauty and fragrance twelve 
months in the year. The house was repaired and 
painted, and the stately dwelling, all their own, seemed 
like a palace to the missionaries who had been pilgrims 
and wanderers so long. ( Story of the Years," by Miss 
M. L. Gibson.) 

The school prospered for a number of 
years under the principalship of Miss Ida 
Shaffer and later under Miss Sara Warne. 
In 1913 the enrollment had reached one hun 
dred and thirteen. Because the building did 
not meet the needs of the school and because 
Granbery College was receiving girls, it was 
decided in 1914 to discontinue Collegio Mi- 
neiro. The property was sold to the General 
Department of the Board of Missions for the 
use of Granbery. The Council received, in 
exchange, property for the enlargement of 
Collegio Isabella Hendrix at Bello Horizonte 
and also a sum of money which was turned 
into the fund for the projected school at Rio 
de Janeiro. Collegio Mineiro was closed, yet 
its years of efficient service and the consecrated 
lives of the missionaries have enriched Brazil 
in manifold ways. 


Collegia Americano. 

For a number of years the question of the 
sale of property in Rio de Janeiro and the 
purchase of property for the school in Petropo- 
lis came before the Woman s Board for de 
cision. The report of 1894-95 shows that the 
exchange had been made. Miss Watts writes 
of the opening of Collegio Americano: 

A large house with almost no furniture is not famed 
for cheerfulness, and this one on a hill far from any 
other was no exception. On the seventh day of May 
we opened our doors to the public. Three children ap 
peared, and we went to work with them. No one of us 
was busy all day, but we all had something to do for 
the three. As each one constituted a distinct class and 
each had several studies, there was more to do than any 
but a teacher would think. In June two more came, 
and July brought others. New names were enrolled 
from time to time until we had twenty-four matricu 

The yellow fever epidemic in Rio de Janeiro 
had driven the court, diplomatic circles, and 
all others who were financially able to this 
health resort of Petropolis, which was only 
three hours distant. This made the transfer 
of the Rio de Janeiro property seem wise. 
However, the situation of the college on the 
hill made a day pupilage impossible. When 


later the court was removed, the numbers de 
creased and the attendance became small. Be 
cause the school did not seem to be serving the 
largest needs and because of its proximity to 
the capital city, the teachers and pupils were 
removed in 1920 to Rio de Janeiro. This 
formed the nucleus for the opening of that 
school, and thus the original plan was served. 
Miss Eliza Perkinson, who for years was the 
head of the school at Petropolis, was appointed 
to take charge of this new college. 


Collegia Methodista. 

For a number of years appeafs had been 
made to the Woman s Board to open work in 
Ribeirao Preto, but because of lack of funds 
a continued refusal was necessary. Finally, 
however, in 1899 Bishop Hendrix transferred 
Miss Leonora Smith to that point and opened 
a school, making the condition that there 
should be no cost to the Woman s Board. 
Miss Smith writes of those early days: 

I arrived in Ribeirao Preto August 31 and opened 
school September 5 in the hall now known as the Meth 
odist church. There being no school furniture, the 
church chairs and tables were kindly tendered me for 
use until I could provide better. One of our members 


made at reasonable rates five double desks, a black 
board, and a hatrack. Teaching in the church was 
fraught with many inconveniences, the chief one being 
the moving of school furniture three times a week to 
prepare for public services and the arrangements for 
school the following day. As soon as I could I made 
a change, finding a house not in every particular de 
sirable. I have two rooms, each about seven feet 
square, which I use for bedroom and study, and a 
large room for the school. For these and my board 
I pay fifteen dollars. 

The second year she enrolled seventy-six 
pupils, and everywhere there seemed to be an 
open door of opportunity. The success of 
the school was such that the Board seemed 
compelled to make an appropriation for its 

In 1903 there came to the city of Ribeirao 
Preto a terrible yellow fever epidemic, and 
Miss Ida May Stewart and Miss Willie Bow 
man, who were serving there at that time, 
gave themselves in such self-sacrificing serv 
ice to the sick and the dying that for years 
their names were mentioned in the most lov 
ing remembrance. This labor of love enlarged 
their influence to such an extent that the fol 
lowing year we find them moving into larger 
and better quarters. This brought new cour 
age, and the purchase of a fine lot a little 
later gave a new prestige to the school. 


It was not until 1913 that plans for build 
ing were really projected. There were at 
that time two hundred and twelve children 
crowded into an old building which was wholly 
inadequate. The dedication of the new col 
lege grounds took place while Miss Bennett 
and Miss Gibson were in Brazil. Of this 
occasion Miss Gibson says: 

The dedication of the college grounds to the service 
of God and ministry to children took place on Sunday 
night, September 20, 1913. After the night service the 
large congregation marched in procession to the col 
lege grounds, and there under the stars and lighted by 
a large incandescent lamp the assemblage stood while 
selections from the Ritual were read in English by Dr. 
Tilly and in Portuguese by Senor Reis. Hymns were 
sung in the two languages, and short talks were made 
by friends of the school, after which the erection of 
the building was authorized in the name of the Wom 
an s Missionary Council, and Miss Bennett and Miss 
Gibson each planted a tree in commemoration of the 
event which would prove of such moment in the history 
of the Church and community. 

The final completion of the building meant 
for the Collegio Methodista a greatly enlarged 
field of usefulness, and Miss Jennie Stradlcy, 
the directress, continued to hold for it the 
center of influence in that city of twenty thou 
sand inhabitants, located in the heart of a 
great Brazilian coffee region. 


Collegia Isabella Hendrix. 

Bishop Wilson visited Brazil in 1903 and, 
upon his return, advised the sale of the prop 
erty at Petropolis and recommended the open 
ing of work in Bello Horizonte. That same 
year the Board voted to occupy that impor 
tant city. Miss Watts, who had pioneered the 
work in Piracicaba and Petropolis, was ap 
pointed to open the school. This appointment 
was made with the intention of erecting a 
building in the near future which should bear 
the name Isabella Hendrix, in honor of Bish 
op Hendrix s mother, whose deep interest in 
the work and workers had been untiring. A 
beautiful lot, comprising four acres near the 
center of the town, had been given to the Gen 
eral Board of Missions, half of which was 
turned over to the Woman s Board of For 
eign Missions, and, in 1905, the immediate 
erection of the Isabella Hendrix was recom 

Entrance into this city was made against 
the strongest Catholic opposition, but the 
courageous heart of our pioneer never failed. 
She writes in 1905: 


A little more than a year ago we opened school with 
five pupils, but during the session of nine months that 
followed we matriculated sixty-three. It really is a 
wonder that we have a Catholic child in the school, for 
the priests preach against us on Sunday and work 
against us on the week days. One priest told his con 
gregation that Dona Isabella snatched the saint off the 
neck of one of the children. We hear of people who 
want to send their children to us, but are afraid. 

The school continued to prosper, and in 1914 
the enrollment had reached one hundred and 
ninety-one. Not only did Catholic opposition 
put the school to the test, but the educational 
reforms going on in Brazil made a higher 
standard necessary. Miss Watts says concern 
ing this: "We ll stand the storm as we have 
done in Piracicaba, Juiz de Fora, and Petropo- 
lis; for our schools are God s schools. We 
must have his lighthouses wherever we can 
put them, and he will keep the light burning." 

Miss Blanche Howell and Miss Mamie Fin- 
ley, each in succession, followed Miss Watts 
as Directress. Later, Miss Emma Christine 
was put in charge. The following from her 
gives an insight into the success of the school: 
"The playgrounds are now a delight to pupils 
and teachers. A little girl, a pupil, was heard 
to say as she passed our gate: O but this 


school is good ! It is very good. It has play 
grounds, a swing, and a seesaw ! 

Work in the classroom would seem to be 
equally pleasant, for she further writes: "My 
fifth-year class in the life of St. Paul was es 
pecially interesting to me, as in it were many 
girls who had never before studied the Bible. 
One day one of these girls said: Paul was so 
enthusiastic for Christ. Why are not our men 
of to-day interested in religion? And I 
thought, Why not, indeed? " 

Collegia Americano. 

\Vhen the Methodist Episcopal Church 
and the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 
agreed to work territorially in South America, 
and Brazil was given over to Southern Meth 
odism, this meant the entrance into the State 
of Rio Grande do Sul and the carrying on 
of the work that had already been begun in 
the capital of Porto Alegre. The Woman s 
Board, in its session in 1900, voted to follow 
the General Board into South Brazil and to 
accept the responsibility of the woman s work 
in Porto Alegre, which had already been pro 
jected by the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
Porto Alegre is four days journey from Rio 


de Janeiro, and Miss Mary Pescud, the first 
appointee, writes two years later concerning 
this new and untried field: "A year ago I was 
a stranger in a strange land, a land almost 
as different from the Brazil I knew as that 
is from the homeland. Eight or ten differ 
ent nationalities are represented in our circle 
of friends, but we all found a common tongue 
in the Portuguese language." Concerning her 
school equipment, she says: Its quarters are 
as poorly adapted for a school as can well 
be imagined, "and its furnishings would pro 
voke criticism in a backwoods school in the 
States, though we are in the capital and lar 
gest town of one of the largest States of 

The school was opened with an enrollment 
of fifty, and in 1918 the number had increased 
to one hundred and ten. In 1909 two flour 
ishing day schools were in session. Miss 
Elizabeth Lamb followed Miss Mary Pescud 
as the head of Collegio Americano and was 
succeeded by Miss Eunice Andrew. 

Constantly the missionaries wrote of their 
success in spite of poor equipment and an illy 
adapted rented building, inadequate to meet 
the great possibilities in this rich city. The 
Centenary ingathering of funds brought new 


courage, for the askings included $100,000 for 
a new building at Porto Alegre. 


While the outwork has never been as strong 
in Brazil as in China, yet much has been done 
that is worthy of note. Miss Amelia Elerding, 
who was appointed to Brazil in 1892, devoted 
her efforts almost entirely to evangelistic 
work first in Rio de Janeiro and for many 
years to Italian work in Sao Paulo. 

In Rio de Janeiro Miss Elerding was assisted for 
a time by Miss Wright, an English lady. A little or 
gan brought by Miss Watts from the United States 
was a great help in drawing the people together. Miss 
Amelia Elerding began an industrial school with nine 
pupils. With the help of Mrs. Tilly, she organized a 
woman s prayer meeting. One afternoon in each week 
the missionaries were "at home" to the estalayem peo 
ple, giving them an opportunity to see how they lived 
and how they enjoyed social life. Later Miss Elerding 
organized a Ladies Aid Society to develop Christian 
activity. Miss Bowman also worked most effectively 
in Rio de Janeiro, interesting the English-speaking 
ladies in visitation work and securing from them cloth 
ing for children of the families on her visiting list. 
She visited the Sailors Mission, going on board ships 
with the sailors missionary to assist in Sunday serv 

The great Central Mission, conducted by the Rev. H. 
C. Tucker in a desperately needy section of Rio de 
Janeiro, has for years had the services of women mis 
sionaries supported by the woman s work. The fol- 


lowing missionaries have served this Church : Miss May 
Dye, Miss Eunice Andrew, Miss Trulie Richmond, 
Miss Blanche Howell, Miss Virginia Howell. 

In 1898 Miss Elerding was transferred from Rio de 
Janeiro to Sao Paulo after her furlough, during which 
time she tried to gain new ideas and new methods re 
lating to woman s work. There were ninety thousand 
Italians in Sao Paulo, and from the first Miss Elerding 
felt a strong interest in them. While she has done 
some work among the Portuguese, yet her main effort 
has been directed to the Italians. The work among 
Brazilians would have been more permanent and en 
couraging if there had been conservation of effort 
through a strong central Church that would have com 
manded the respect and won the confidence of the 
people of Sao Paulo. With three Bible women and 
one evangelistic helper, Miss Elerding has lived among 
the people, visiting their homes, loving them, and serv 
ing them for Christ s sake. She has held people s 
prayer meetings before services on Sunday evenings 
and on Friday evenings and has attended services at 
the carpenters shops with good results. 

In Porto Alegre the Institutional Church has been 
supplied with a pastor s assistant, and for a number 
of years a day school was conducted in that church by 
the Woman s Board. 

In Piracicaba a Woman s Aid Society was organ 
ized years ago to build up the spiritual, social, and finan 
cial interests of the Church. During one year four 
hundred dollars was raised and many women led out 
into Church work. In 1897 the president of the so 
ciety urged the members to take up Bible women in 
China as their special work. 

Flower missions and services in jails and hospitals 
have been carried on in various places. "Story of the 
Years," M. L. Gibson. 



The 1911 report of the Woman s Mission 
ary Society of Brazil showed that at that 
time there had been organized twenty-two 
auxiliaries with a membership of six hundred 
and seventy-three. The aim adopted by this 
society was to establish parochial schools in a 
number of small towns in connection with the 
pastorates and to be responsible for their sup 
port. Their plan also included contributions 
to foreign missions. In 1919 they sent their 
first check to the Council Treasurer for work 
in Africa. 



THE beginnings of all worth-while enter 
prises are fraught with intense interest. This 
is particularly true with reference to the be 
ginnings of the woman s work in each of the 
fields occupied, and Mexico is not an excep 
tion. It has, indeed, a distinctive interest of 
its own in the fact that it was begun not on 
Mexican, but on American soil, and in a pri 
vate home. The first annual report of the 
Woman s Missionary Society shows that an 
appropriation of five hundred dollars was 
made to a school on the Mexican border, con 
ducted in the home of Mrs. Jacob Norwood 
at Laredo, Tex. This amount went to the 
support of four girls, two of whom boarded 
in Mrs. Norwood s home, the other two being 
day pupils. This small beginning was made 
in answer to the plea of the Rev. A. H. Suth 
erland, the founder of Southern Methodism 
on the Mexican border. With wonderful 
foresight he writes: "We hold a very advan- 


tageous position. We are able to carry on 
foreign mission work under our own flag. 
My plan is to prosecute this border work until 
we reach the Pacific, thus having one long line 
of gospel breastworks and an army of gospel 
workers from the Gulf of Mexico to the Pa 
cific Ocean." 

The second annual report shows that an 
appropriation of an additional five hundred 
dollars was made for pupils to be boarded and 
educated in the home of Mrs. Sutherland in 
San Antonio. 

This was, indeed, a small beginning, but 
there was in the minds of the women the seed- 
thought of a great school soon to be estab 
lished in Laredo. Under date of April 17, 
1 88 1, Mrs. Norwood says: "You will no doubt 
be surprised to learn of our removal from 
Laredo to this place (Conception). The two 
girls (boarders) will remain with me, I sup 
pose, until the opening of the proposed col 
lege in Laredo. I sincerely hope the college 
will be built, that many Mexican girls may be 
educated there. Laredo is a promising and 
an interesting place, and it was with many 
regrets that we left." 


Laredo Seminary. 

In September of that same year two regu 
larly appointed missionaries, Miss Annie Wil 
liams and Miss Rebecca Toland, were sent to 
the Mexican border. Already four thousand 
dollars had been appropriated for the build 
ing of Laredo Seminary, and a plot of ground 
had been donated by the Rev. Elias Robert 
son. The General Secretary writes in the re 
port of 1882: 

The unavoidable delay in the erection of the build 
ing has not materially affected the work of our young 
ladies this year. Miss Williams is located for the 
present at the Mexican town Conception, heart and 
soul given to her work, and Miss Toland not less suc 
cessfully engaged in teaching a fine school at Laredo. 

Miss Annie Williams says of her work in 
these days: "My home for two months after 
coming to the border was with Mr. Norwood s 
family, but they were called away from Con 
ception, and I went to live with a Mexican 
family, where I have remained up to this time. 
I have been the recipient of many kindnesses 
from the Mexicans of this place and realize 
what a noble people they will become when the 
light of the gospel truth illuminates their 
hearts and minds. I ask that an appropriation 


be made to complete and furnish the seminary 
at Laredo." 

The building was completed October 13, 
1882, at which time Miss Williams took 
charge. She says: "We spent some time in 
furnishing the building and trying to make 
ready for the fall session, which opened the 
second Monday in November. We had only 
three Mexican and four American children at 
the beginning, but in a short time the school 
increased to eighteen." That same year Miss 
Toland had sixty pupils in her self-supporting 
day school at Laredo. 

At the end of the first year Miss Williams 
was married to the Rev. J. F. Corbin, and Miss 
Toland was given supervision of the sem 
inary until the arrival of Miss Nannie Hold 
ing in October of 1883. Since that time the 
Laredo Seminary has been inseparably asso 
ciated with Miss Holding s name. Her whole 
life and soul became incarnate in the institu 
tion ; and the daughters of the school, some of 
whom were in attendance for years, were in 
deed her daughters. She remained at the 
head of Laredo Seminary for nearly thirty 
years. When she became principal the build 
ing would accommodate by the utmost over 
crowding only thirty children. During her 


cidministration it was enlarged to a capacity 
of between three and four hundred. In her 
book, "A Decade in Mission Life," she says: 

February of 1885 found us domiciled in our com 
fortable and sorely needed new quarters. The crowd 
ing in the old house made the new one seem so roomy 
that sometimes a little faithless wonder would come : 
Would it ever be possible for its halls to be filled with 
children? We were soon rebuked for our faithless 
ness, for in one short year our numbers caused the 
prayer to go forth which brought us Faith Hall. 

The following incident shows the origin of 

the name "Faith Hall." Miss Holding says: 
It was late in the fall of 1886. As I write, how that 

November evening comes back to me laden with the 
perfume of holy memories. I see again the dear friends 
and the precious children gathered one by one in the 
little chapel after a day of fasting; I feel again the 
hush of the Master s presence; I hear the voice of sup 
plication as we told of our need, of how crowded we 
were, of how our hearts were grieved to turn away 
those who wanted to enter our home ; I hear again the 
expression of the simple faith of the children. Faith 
Hall now stands as a monument to that evening s 
prayer. With strong confidence, one of the little ones, 
looking up with pure, innocent eyes said : "Shall we 
begin to-morrow?" I answered "No; but we will pre 
pare the ground." So the morning found us taking 
measurements and removing trees. 

At the meeting of the Woman s Board in 
1887 Miss Holding made a plea to the Com 
mittee on Extension of Work for the money 


to erect Faith Hall. The answer was: "We 
fear we cannot give you what you ask." On 
the anniversary night of that same session she 
made a public address on Mexico. As she 
closed, Mrs. Lizzie Swiggart stepped forward 
taking from the table an empty box which had 
contained flowers. In eloquent words she 
thrilled the audience until they pressed for 
ward pouring their gifts into the box. This 
was the beginning of making Faith Hall a 
reality. Donations came afterwards from 
nearly every Southern State. 

After the Woman s Foreign Mission and 
Home Mission Boards were united Laredo 
Seminary was turned over to the home de 
partment. Miss Holding was succeeded by 
Dr. J. M. Skinner. The name was changed 
to Holding Institute in honor of the one whose 
hope and faith had been a leaven, not only 
for the work on the border, but throughout 
all of Mexico. 

Colegio Ingles. 

Miss Holding was not only head of Laredo 
Seminary, but was agent for missionary work 
along both sides of the border. In 1888 the 
Woman s Board began work in Saltillo, a 


city of about twenty thousand inhabitants. A 
few years previous a day school, opened by 
Mrs. Corbin, had been taken in charge by Miss 
Leila Roberts, who was being supported by 
the "Rosebuds" of Virginia. As the school 
grew it became the incarnation of the life of 
Miss Roberts almost to the same degree that 
Laredo Seminary had become the expression 
of Miss Holding s mind and heart. The cir 
cumstances under which she was heroically 
laboring when the Woman s Board entered 
Saltillo marked her as a true pioneer. The 
three-hundred-year-old building in which the 
school was being conducted was adobe with 
the exception of the stone facings of the win 
dows and doors. There was no glass in the 
windows, and the heavy wooden shutters 
"shut out all light where most needed, or let 
in all of the cold where least wanted," 

At the close of Miss Roberts s first year of 
work for the Woman s Board, Miss Holding 
reports : 

Miss Roberts has worked faithfully to make the 
Colegio Ingles what it is. I am more and more 
pleased with the school at every visit. In the short 
space of one year we can almost call it self-supporting. 

That same year an appropriation was made 
to buy property. Miss Holding and Miss Rob- 


erts searched in vain to find a suitable place, 
and finally resorted to the three-century-old 
property then occupied. A letter written four 
years later by the Rev. H. C. Morrison, Sen 
ior Secretary of the General Board, describes 
the transformation of the building: 

At Saltillo we met Miss Roberts, a woman of mar 
velous power for work and doing good. To her is due 
the undying honor of the work in that city. Alone and 
unaided she battled for a time, and then under the 
fostering hand of the Woman s Board she has wrought 
wonders a school property, commodious and well ar 
ranged, with the touch of taste on every hand. In ad 
dition to this property and fronting on another street 
is the new church. The lot on which it is located was 
purchased by Miss Roberts with the proceeds from 
the school, and the building was erected through her 
energy and the financial aid of Brother Grimes, of our 
work. This plant is a gospel arc light in the heart of 

Miss Roberts, in her report of this same 
year (1893), reveals the proportions which the 
work had begun to take. She says: 

A normal department, with a course of study to be 
completed in three years, was added to our work. As 
teaching is really the only avenue open to the women 
by which they can earn enough to be above want, we 
saw that our opportunity had come to prove to the 
people that we were ready, as far as possible, to meet 
this deeply felt need. 


By tenacity of purpose and personal effort 
she succeeded in the establishment of this de 
partment. In time all the other mission 
schools of the woman s work became feeders 
to the normal school at Saltillo, each sending 
yearly, when possible, its most promising pu 
pils for teacher-training. Miss Roberts, in her 
report of 1894, further says: 

Seventy-five poor children were taught in our free 
schools, and there is one place where all, the high and 
the low, the rich and the poor, meet together every 
day, and that is in our chapel services where God is 
worshiped and his Word is studied. The work wherein 
my soul delights is that with the poor women. They 
come to us as their M.D. and their D.D. The number 
of those enrolled in our Bible and sewing class is 
sixty-seven. They meet me once a week on the shady 
side of the wall in one of our courts, as there is no 
other place. 

The record of 1896 shows that there was 
at that time an enrollment of one hundred 
and ninety-one and that the income was pay 
ing two-fifths of the school expenses. Such 
prestige had been established that the Govern 
or of the State had recommended it to par 
ents who were asking for the best places to 
educate their girls. This favor with the of 
ficials continued, for later, through the in 
fluence of Governor Carranza, a subsidy of 


one hundred dollars (Mexican) a month was 
received from the State. The Saltillo Normal 
was the only Protestant school invited to have 
representation in the Congress of Teachers in 

The school at Saltillo was also the only 
one of our schools that was not closed at some 
time during the revolution. Miss Roberts made 
frequent visits into Mexico and was thus able 
to keep the work from being discontinued. 
The report of 1919 shows an enrollment of 
two hundred and three, the student body rep 
resenting six States in Mexico and the Mexi 
can population in the United States. Govern 
or Mariles, a former pupil of the school, wrote 
in this year: "I desire to restore to your school 
the monthly subsidy of one hundred dollars 
(Mexican) granted by President Carranza 
when he was governor." 

Miss Roberts writes at that time: "Gov 
ernor Mariles was anxious to have us lay the 
corner stone of the new school building last 
September. He guarantees us every neces 
sary protection as well as his personal sup 

In view of these facts, the Council voted in 
1919 to erect a new building at the very earli 
est date possible, a fine piece of land facing 



the Alameda and diagonally across from the 
State Normal having recently been purchased 
with that in view. This action was confirmed by 
the session of 1920 in the passage of the reso 
lution to erect for the Normal School at Sal- 
tillo an administration building to cost $150,- 
ooo, to be provided from a previous appropria 
tion of $20,000 and from Centenary funds. 
The great esteem in which the school was held 
was shown by the fact that its friends and ex- 
students also subscribed most generously to 
this building fund. The recent awakening 
that came to Mexico as a result of the Cen 
tenary created a great demand for more in 
tensive training of evangelistic workers. To 
meet this demand it was decided to open in 
the fall of 1920 a department of Bible in con 
nection with the Normal, the old normal build 
ing to be used for settlement work, thereby 
providing a center for the further training of 
evangelistic workers. 

The MacDonell Institute. 

A school at Durango was opened by Miss 
Kate McFarren during the ministry of Rob 
ert MacDonell (the husband of Mrs. R. W. 
MacDonell, former Executive Secretary of 


the Home Department). After his death the 
desire became strong among the women of the 
Board of Foreign Missions to help extend 
the life and influence of this one who had 
given himself in heroic sacrifice. According 
ly, property was purchased in 1889 and the 
school, which was taken over from the Parent 
Board, was called the MacDonell Institute. 
Miss McFarren was in charge until 1898, at 
which time she was appointed to evangelistic 
work and Miss Ellie B. Tidings was made 
Principal. The MacDonell Institute, from its 
beginning "met and suffered much." There 
was in the early days a lack of railroad facili 
ties, so that this mountainous region was al 
most inaccessible to the outside world. The 
fanaticism of the people was so intense that 
many of the experiences of the workers could 
well be termed persecution. The property 
seems constantly to have been in danger, and 
even as late as 1903 Miss Tidings writes: 

One day they (meaning the neighbors, who by law 
had a right to do so) sent workmen to wall up our 
windows, and when I asked the chief workman what 
was their motive, he shrugged his shoulders and said : 
"Just to injure the school." Last year the Jefe Politico 
sent policemen to protect us on the night of September 
16 (Independence Day) ; but, notwithstanding their 
presence, quite a number of our windows were broken, 


so this year he sent word beforehand that he would 
be personally responsible for our property. The mob 
came as usual, and we heard them screeching for 
hours. They could see that the Jefe Politico was keep 
ing watch. We heard afterwards that they threatened 
to kill him for not permitting them to "celebrate their 

In spite of persecution, the school was suc 
ceeding; for the Corresponding Secretary of 
the Woman s Board says in one of her re 

The city of Durango, while priest-ridden and fanati 
cal, is not openly so hostile as formerly. The gracious 
influences emanating from MacDonell Institute are 
being felt very sensibly; and while superstitution and 
mariolatry abound, the opra Bible is no longer an un 
known book. 

The damage that the neighbors had done 
by putting one side of the school building in 
darkness led to its sale and the purchase of a 
large piece of property with a number of dif 
ferent buildings. An interesting thing about 
this new property was that between the build 
ings there was a cock pit. Miss Esther Case, 
Executive Secretary for Latin America, on 
her visit to Mexico in 1919 writes: 

It has two stories (meaning the cock pit), and at 
one side there is a long room that could be used as an 
assembly hall. If this cock pit could be covered with 
glass, it would serve as a gymnasium and also for a 
hall for closing exercises. 


Miss May Tread well was in charge of Mac- 
Donell Institute in 1910, and in 1911 Mrs. 
Nellie O Bierne was appointed principal. 
Mrs. O Bierne says in the report of 1911-12: 

Though we have had wars and rumors of wars all 
the year, our work has steadily grown. In September 
when we opened we had sixty pupils, we have now 
passed the two-hundred mark. 

In this high tide of success the school was 
closed, and in the report of the Foreign De 
partment Secretary for the following year we 

MacDonell Institute was suspended last spring 
because of political disturbances in and around Du- 

However, the fall of 1912 found the mis 
sionaries at work. All went well for a \vhile, 
but toward the close of the year conditions 
became more serious, farms all around the 
city were burned and provisions destroyed. 
For a while all communication with the out 
side world was cut off, and affairs grew so 
much worse that the vice consul decided that 
the missionaries should leave. 

With the territorial division of Mexico, 
which was made according to denominational 
agreement, Durango remained in the hands of 
Southern Methodism, and the Council voted 


in 1919 to reopen the school there as soon as 
workers were available. 

Colcgio Palmore. 

Dr. W. B. Palmore, who visited Mexico in 
1889, became so interested in that needy field 
that at the meeting of the Woman s Board in 
May, 1890, he made the following offer: 

I hereby promise to donate to the Woman s Board 
of Foreign Missions for a girls school in Chihuahua 
all of a plot of land purchased for me by Rev. S. G. 
Kilgore and lying on the south side of and adjoining 
the property of the Parent Board, the property to be 
used for a site for a girls school to be owned and 
operated by the Woman s Board of Foreign Missions 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. 

The gift was accepted, and the school 
opened the following year with Miss Augusta 
Wilson as principal. In 1892 a building was 
erected and the school named Colegio Palmore. 
The foundations were well laid by the first 
principal during her three years of service, and 
the institution had a phenomenal growth from 
the beginning. 

Miss Elizabeth Wilson, who was appointed 
to Laredo Seminary in 1889 as matron of that 
school, became the successor to Miss Augusta 


Wilson. From that time on, until her death 
in 1916, the work of Palmore College centered 
about that remarkable personality. She was 
assisted during all of these years by her close 
friend and coworker, Miss Lucy Harper. In 
Miss Wilson s third report she says : "Our 
work embraces four departments : a pay school 
for girls and one for boys w r ith some outside 
pupils for English only. These, with the 
woman s work, missionary society, two Sun 
day schools, a prayer meeting, some visiting, 
and the help in the Church services, keep us 
fully engaged." 

The enrollment in 1910 had reached five 
hundred and eighty-seven, and the church, 
located on the compound and having a mem- 
bership made up principally of the former pu 
pils of the school, had become one of the 
strongest in Mexico. 

In 1902 a commercial department was 
opened under the direction of Prof. Servando 
I. Esquivel, a former pupil of Miss Wilson. 
Professor Esquivel, in speaking of Miss Wil 
son, her school, and its work, says: 

Miss Wilson s contribution to Mexico is the educa 
tion of more than three thousand boys and girls. 
Could there have been a greater one? To accomplish 
it she toiled in the early hours of the morning and 
worked far into the night. She did not spare herself. 


Her mission, the one she loved most, was the bringing 
of souls to Christ. And so if any one visiting Pal- 
more College in its best days had asked to see its 
highest expression, I should have led him to Holding 
Hall at chapel time, where the principal brought forth 
the treasures of the Scriptures to deposit them in the 
spirit of the students ; or to the office at the evening 
twilight hour, where she gathered the girls around her 
for prayer r.nd sacred songs ; or to the parlor on Sun 
day morning, where she taught the women of her Sun 
day school class. These were the crowning moments 
of her life, the high-water marks of the life of the 
school. Not all of the students came into personal con 
tact with her, but not one ever left without having 
felt the touch of her influence. She did not allow any 
public function of the institution to be opened without 
recognition of her God. More than one Governor of 
the State of Chihuahua bowed for the first time in 
prayer with Protestants at the closing exercises of 
Palmore College, because Miss Wilson would place 
God first. She was a spiritual leader. 

Herein lies the secret of the marvelous pow 
er wielded by Palmore College for more than 
twenty years. 

In 1914, when Miss Wilson and Miss Har 
per were telegraphed instructions to leave 
Mexico, the reply was: "No trouble. No 
fears. Fine school. Firm friends. Please 
let us stay." 

The Secretary of the Foreign Department 
says in her report of that year: 


Misses Wilson and Harper remained in Chihuahua, 
the storm center of warfare, until General Villa and 
six trains o^ soldiers entered the city. Then the 
American consul ordered them to leave. They left, 
taking with them their faculty and a number of pupils. 
They stopped at El Paso, and within two weeks had 
rented a house in the midst of the Mexicans and 
opened a school composed principally of children of 
their former patrons who had refugeed to El Paso. 
In two months the school increased to one hundred and 

The Council did not, however, deem its 
continuance advisable because a number of 
Mexican schools were already being conducted 
in El Paso. The strain of the turbulent 
times proved too much for the frail body of 
Miss Wilson, and on Sunday morning, Au 
gust 29, 1916, she passed to the life beyond. 

In 1914, at a conference of denominational 
representatives, held in Cincinnati, plans were 
proposed for a territorial adjustment of Mexi 
co. At a later meeting in Mexico City, the 
adjustments made allotted to our Church the 
border States of Sonora and Tamaulipas be 
sides the interior State of Durango, thus giv 
ing to the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 
an unbroken territory extending across the 
border of Mexico from the Gulf of Mexico 
on the east to the Gulf of California on the 
west. In 1919 this plan was put into effect. 


The school at Saltillo had never really closed, 
so the first one to be reopened by the Council 
was that of Colegio Palmore. In the reor 
ganization of the school the boys boarding 
department was opened in a building received 
through exchange with the American Board. 
The Rev. J. P. Lancaster was appointed Prin 
cipal and Miss Mary E. Massey Associate 
Principal. Two years later Miss Massey be 
came the head of the institution. 

In 1919, in one of the buildings on the 
school compound, the Council opened its first 
Christian social center in Mexico with Miss 
Lillie Fox as Head Resident. It was decided 
that the name Centro Christiano should be 
given to this settlement and all others that 
might in the future be opened in Mexico. 


Colegio Ingles. 

In 1882 Miss Blanche Gilbert was sent to 
Mexico City to pioneer work in Central Mex 
ico. It was later decided to begin in San Luis 
Potosi, but from the annual report of 1885 
we learn that work at that point was carried 
on for only one year. Miss Gilbert and Miss 
Mattie Jones, her assistant, were transferred 


to other fields and the property which had 
been purchased was sold. 

In 1890 Miss Holding was sent to this city 
with a view to reopening work. At that time 
she purchased an attractive piece of property 
which had formerly been a part of an old Fran 
ciscan convent. Miss Toland, the first prin 
cipal of the new school, writes: "When I ar 
rived at San Luis Potosi last July I found 
Miss Holding here with everything in readi 
ness to welcome me. Already she had the 
patio adorned with beautiful pot plants and 
everything looking bright and cheerful." 

Miss Toland was Principal until 1902, when 
she was succeeded by Miss Esther Case, who 
was, in turn, followed by Miss Laura V. 
Wright. In 1902 Miss Frances Moling be 
came the head of the school and continued 
in this position until its close. In 1892 Miss 
Holding writes concerning the work at San 
Luis Potosi: "This school is almost without 
parallel in its growth and prosperity. In the 
two years of its existence it has outgrown its 
boundaries and called for more room, more 
money, and more helpers." 

To meet this demand an addition was made 
to the building and a boarding department add 
ed to the day school. A charity school was 


also conducted in another part of the city 
under Miss Viola Blackburn s supervision. 
In 1914 the institution was obliged to be 
closed on account of the revolution. Miss 
Moling writes concerning this tragic event: 

On April 21, 1914, when the Americans entered Vera 
Cruz, we quickly sent the children away for the night 
and went ourselves, not realizing that we would never 
return. The children were in the study hall when the 
message came that mobs were forming in the streets, 
that the American consulate had been attacked, the 
flags torn down and trampled underfoot, and the con 
sul himself saved only by the timely intervention of a 
servant who wrapped the Mexican flag about him and 
spirited him away. We knew then that it was time for 
us to go, as the college, too, had been threatened. Mexi 
can friends came to our rescue, friends who were true 
when the test came, and all of our girls were given 
homes for the night. A lady who had been formerly 
a student at Colegio Ingles offered us the protection 
of her home, which we, of course, gladly accepted. 
We expected to return the following day, but were 
bitterly disappointed, the streets still being filled with 
infuriated mobs. The time for closing the scholastic 
year was at hand. The deep solicitude of our friends 
in the homeland, the frequent messages from our Sec 
retary, which had preceded the occupation of Vera 
Cruz, all combined to help us to decide to leave Mexico 
until it would be safe to occupy our building again. 
Accordingly the last of May, on a special train made up 
of refugees, we left the work that meant more to us 
than anythiag else in the world. 


With the exchange of properties incident 
to the allotment of territory, the Christian 
Woman s Board of Missions received the 
property at San Luis Potosi, while theirs at 
Monterey fell to the Woman s Missionary 
Council. At this latter place a girls school 
was opened in the fall of 1919 with Miss Dora 
Ingram in charge. 


Institute Colon. 

In 1893 Miss Augusta Wilson and Miss 
Mattie Dorsey were transferred from Chi 
huahua to Guadalajara for the purpose of 
opening a new school. Miss Wilson remained 
at the head of this institution for five years 
and was then succeeded by Miss Esther Case. 

After two years, Miss Case was followed by 
Miss Alice B. Griffith. Mrs. A. E. McClen- 
don, Mrs. Ellen B. Carney, Miss Norwood E. 
Wynn, and Miss Mary Massey, each in turn, 
served as Principal. Because of the fanati 
cism of this city, our missionaries were never 
able to attract a pupilage from the upper class 
es and the school suffered from the frequent 
changes of policy resulting from the changes 
in principalship. However, numbers of the 
children of the native pastors were among 



the graduates, many of whom have given valu 
able service in our mission schools and in ac 
tive Church work. During the time that Mrs. 
McClendon was Principal the school was given 
the name Institute Colon (Columbus). While 
Miss Wynn was the head of the school a prop 
erty was purchased which was formerly a 
sanitarium conducted as a branch of the Bat 
tle Creek Sanitarium of this country. This 
was the best piece of property that the Wom 
an s Board owned in Mexico. 

A day school was conducted in a building 
adjoining the church property in San Juan de 
Dios, the slum section of Guadalajara. This 
school was called the Trueheart Day School 
in honor of Mrs. S. C. Trueheart, the Corre 
sponding Secretary of the Woman s Board of 
Foreign Missions. 

In the exchange of properties the school at 
Guadalajara went to the Congregationalists. 

Mary Keener Institute. 

Mary Keener Institute, in Mexico City, was 
opened in 1897 under the principalship of 
Miss Hardynia Norville. A day school had 
previously been conducted in the basement of 
the mission church which had been supported 


by the women of Carondelet Street Church, 
New Orleans. Their interest in the work had 
been aroused by Bishop Keener, and when the 
Woman s Board took over the school it was 
given the name Keener Institute. At the re 
quest of Bishop Keener, this name was 
changed to Mary Keener, in honor of the 
bishop s wife, who he said had been the prime 
mover in the enterprise. Mary Keener Insti 
tute was opened in a rented building and was 
throughout the years of its existence without 
any permanent quarters. Property was so dif 
ficult to secure that the missionaries worked 
under the severest handicap. Mrs. Cobb, Ex 
ecutive Secretary, says in her report of 1911- 

There are no words too strong to portray the real 
positive need for a change of location. The house for 
which we pay nearly $4,500 (Mexican) rent each year 
is dark, gloomy, poorly ventilated, poorly lighted, and, 
worse still, has sewerage that is a menace to the in 
mates. There are no windows in the bedrooms and no 
ventilation except through open doors. 

In spite of these conditions the school pros 
pered under the able management of Miss 
Esther Case. Mrs. Cobb goes on to say in this 
same report: 

Brave Miss Case ! Who else would have endured 
such conditions? All honor to the woman who, despite 


such environment, can sustain the largest school for 
girls in Mexico City! If she had failed, if there were 
not still almost constant applications from the best 
families in the city, including that of Madero himself, 
we might consider closing the school. 

As a result of Mrs, Cobb s visit to Mexico 
and her presentation of the conditions under 
which the school was being conducted, a much 
more desirable place was leased for three 
years and the last year of the school was con 
ducted under more favorable circumstances. 

An interesting feature connected with the 
Mary Keener Institute was the Chinese Sun 
day school, in which American and Mexican 
teachers and pupils from the advanced grades 
of the school taught Chinese pupils on Sunday 
afternoon. Many of these pupils were con 
verted and became active members of Mesias 
Church, the largest Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, in Mexico City. 

The Institute was closed in 1914. Miss 
Case says in her report: 

Our work was rudely interrupted when the bom 
bardment began on February 9 and lasted for ten days. 
During that time we sent as many of our boarding 
girls as we could to their homes. Our church and 
mission house were in the danger zone. Though more 
than two thousand people were killed in the" city, thou 
sands wounded, and bullets and parts of exploded 
shell thrown into our school yard and on our roof, we 


were mercifully spared and kept from harm. Our 
boarding and day pupils returned promptly after the 
bombardment and we carried on the work until the 
end of the school year in May. On August 28 a cable 
gram was received telling all the missionaries to leave 
at once. We sent our boarding pupils home, closed 
school, and had announcements printed and mailed to 
our patrons and friends telling them why we were 
leaving. We came away very reluctantly, hoping we 
might return after the election in October. When that 
was a failure, \ve planned to return by the first of the 
year ; but the revolution continues, and we can only 
pray that peace may come and the way be opened for 
us to resume our work. 

After the territorial division among the de 
nominations, the responsibility for Mexico 
City fell into other hands, and the former 
Principal of Mary Keener Institute was en 
gaged in the tasks which fall to the Execu 
tive Secretary of the Council for Latin Amer 
ica and Africa. 


Colegio Progreso. 

In the exchange of properties the Council 
received a day school, Colegio Progreso, lo 
cated at Parral, a mining town of about 15,- 
ooo inhabitants in the State of Chihuahua. 
This school, formerly owned by the American 
Board, was conducted for thirty-five years by 
Miss Prescott, who was obliged to leave on 


account of the revolution. The Mexican teach 
ers were taken over by the Woman s Mission 
ary Council and the school was carried on 
without interruption. In 1918 four teachers 
were employed and two hundred and twelve 
pupils enrolled. 


The work of the Centenary was so success 
fully carried on in Mexico that important fi 
nancial help was given by the people them 
selves in the upbuilding of the mission insti 
tutions. At that time Miss Norwood Wynn 
was appointed as Student Secretary for Mex 
ico. More than one hundred and thirty young 
people volunteered. These she organized into 
volunteer bands and assisted in making plans 
for their life work. Miss Wynn also organized 
Woman s Missionary Society auxiliaries 
among the women ; and Miss Case, in her vis 
it to Mexico in 1919, formed a Conference 
society with nine auxiliaries. 



UPON the close of the Spanish-American 
War, the General Board of Missions took im 
mediate steps to enter Cuba. The Senior Sec 
retary, Dr. Walter Lambuth, decided that 
Santiago was the best place in which to open 
the gospel campaign. Accordingly, a house 
was rented and the Woman s Board was al 
lowed the use of one room. Miss G. Hattie 
Carson was at once transferred from Mexico 
for the purpose of enterprising a girls school. 
This school was named in honor of Dr. Irene 
Toland, a sister of Miss Rebecca Toland, who 
was at that time a missionary in San Luis 
Potosi, Mexico. Dr Toland was a graduate 
of the American Medical College at St. Louis, 
Mo. A few days after her graduation she 
opened an office in that city and rapidly built 
up a large practice. When yellow fever was 
raging among our soldiers at Santiago, she 
offered her services to the government as 
nurse and worked in that capacity when she 
ii (161) 


might have gone as physician. Day after day, 
medicine case in hand, she fought to save the 
soldiers from the dread pestilence, and then, 
at last, worn beyond endurance, she fell a vic 
tim to typhoid fever and ere long laid do\vn 
her life as a sacrifice for the American sol 
diers. To commemorate this service of love, 
the school at Santiago was named Irene To- 

Because of the inaccessibility of Santiago 
and the continued scourge of yellow fever, the 
Irene Toland School was moved, after a year 
and a half, to Matanzas, "the city of the two 
rivers," and Miss Lily Whitman was made 
Principal. In 1902, however, Miss Rebecca 
Toland was transferred from Mexico, and in 
1920 the school was still under her supervision. 
For twelve years the Irene Toland School 
was housed in rented property, but at the end 
of that time a beautiful situation was secured 
on a hillside overlooking the city and the bay 

Miss Esther Case, Executive Secretary for 
Latin America, says in a report of 1919: 

The enrollment of day pupils in the Irene Toland 
is comparatively small because it is located rather far 
from the center of the city. The majority of these 
are carried to and from school in the auto bus, which 


is owned by the institution. During the nineteen years 
of the school s existence it has drawn patronage from 
more than fifty towns and from every province of the 
island. The Cuban teachers in the grades are former 
pupils of the school, and others of its graduates and 
former pupils are teaching, some in mission and others 
in public schools. It is incorporated with the institute 
of Matanzas Province and the necessary equipment is 
being installed for the third and fourth years of high 


In the same year that the Woman s Board 
voted to move the Irene Toland School to 
Matanzas the following resolution was passed: 

We recommend that Miss Nannie E. Holding be re 
quested to go to Havana and organize the work there 
as soon as the heat of the summer will admit and that 
the North and East Texas Conference Societies be 
granted the privilege of naming the school Eliza Bow 
man, in honor of one whose holy life was a benediction 
to all with whom she came in contact. 

Mrs. Eliza Bowman was a woman greatly 
honored among Texas women for her godly 
life and character and her zeal for missions. 
Her son, Richard Bowman, gave one thousand 
dollars toward founding the school. 

The twenty-third annual report showed that 
the school had been opened at Havana and 
was in charge of Miss Hattie Carson. It re 
mained in this city for seven years and car- 


ried on during that time some of its most suc 
cessful work. Because there was no Church 
in its vicinity, thereby making it impossible to 
conserve the efforts of the missionaries, it was 
decided, at the suggestion of Bishop Candler, 
to move to Cienfuegos. 

At that time the South Georgia Conference 
Society united with the North Texas in buy 
ing a fine piece of property in the central part 
of the city. Miss Carson writes: 

The school is situated on the corner of two of the 
best streets, just a block from our pretty new church. 
It is such a joy to be in our own home without fear 
of having to move at the whim of the owner. There 
are twenty-one rooms in the house besides three bath 
rooms, and there are fifteen stationary washstands 
throughout the building. The Eliza Bowman has been 
incorporated with the public schools and renders her 
monthly report to the city authorities, thus being under 
the city s protection. Besides Spanish, we teach the 
usual English branches and are prepared to give a good 
high school course. We also teach instrumental and 
vocal music, typewriting, sewing, and embroidery. 
Most of our boarders do all of their own sewing, even 
a child of ten years making dresses for her little sister. 

Miss Carson remained at the head of the 
Eliza Bowman School until 1914, when Miss 
Frances B. Moling, who came out of Mexico 
on account of the revolution, was made Prin 
cipal. So crowded did the school become that 


there was always a long list of applicants for 
the boarding department. 

In 1919 a piece of land was bought in Juan- 
ita, an addition of Cienfuegos, and plans 
were made for the erection of a new building 
to meet the demand. This location, it was 
known, would cut off the possibility of a day 
patronage, consequently it was voted to retain 
the old property for the day school and a so 
cial center, thus enlarging the scope of the 


Miss Case says after a visit to Cuba in 

Havana is the great center of population, as it is 
the center of commerce and everything that is worth 
while in Cuba. One-seventh of the population of the 
island is gathered there, and one-fourth of its in 
habitants live there and within a radius of twenty-five 
miles. If the Woman s Missionary Council could es 
tablish a girls school near Candler College, in Havana, 
our Church would then be in a position to provide op 
portunity for Christian education for both boys and 
girls. The parents who send their boys to Candler 
College from towns in all parts of Cuba are pleading 
for a school in Havana for girls. 

The Centenary askings included a sufficient 
amount for the projection of this school, and 
in 1919 a beautiful property was purchased 
just across the street from Candler College. 


This included a city block of land and a hand 
some stone residence large enough to make a 
beginning. Miss M. Belle Markey was ap 
pointed Principal. The Council could not get 
possession until January, 1920, so the opening 
of the school was deferred. 


AT the meeting of the Woman s. Board of 
Foreign Missions in 1910, after much prayer 
and earnest consideration, there was a unani 
mous decision to send a memorial to the Gen 
eral Board requesting the opening of work 
in Africa. The General Board was then in 
session in Nashville, and the following me 
morial was presented: 

Recognizing the obligation of the women of South 
ern Methodism to do their part in the evangelization 
of the whole world and to reach in the shortest possi 
ble time the dying forty millions apportioned to our 
Church by the great Laymen s Movement, we, the 
Woman s Board of Foreign Missions, memorialize the 
General Board of Missions to hear the call from the 
Dark Continent of Africa and, when it is possible, 
open work in that needy field. 

The question of work in Africa had been 
before the General Board of Missions in 1906, 
and now through this memorial from the 
Woman s Board and other pressure brought 
to bear the question was again revived at this 
meeting of 1910. Because of lack of funds 



the plan met with much opposition, but it was 
finally decided that a secretary should be au 
thorized to visit the field and that a "spe 
cial" should be raised to enterprise the mis 

The following year found Bishop Lambuth, 
accompanied by Professor J. W. Gilbert, a 
prominent leader in the colored Methodist 
Church and a graduate of Paine College, in the 
heart of the Congo, seeking a place of occu 
pation. A great portion of the territory which 
had been allotted to the Southern Presbyterian 
Church in the Belgian Congo had never been 
occupied, and the Mission Board of that 
Church had continued to urge that the South 
ern Methodist Church should help to redeem 
the heart of Africa. The consequence was 
that the Presbyterian Mission gave to our am 
bassadors the heartiest cooperation, and with 
the help and guidance of volunteers from 
among their converts our two great Christian 
explorers arrived at the village of Wembo- 
Niama, the chief of the Batetela tribe, Febru 
ary, 1912. Here the assurance came that this 
was the divinely selected spot. 

At the second meeting of the Woman s Mis 
sionary Council in Washington, D. C, strong 
appeals for Africa were made by Miss Ben- 


nett and other leaders of the Church. In the 
midst of the discussion that followed, a note 
from Mrs. L. H. Glide, of San Francisco, 
was sent to the desk. It contained a pledge of 
five thousand dollars for the work in Africa 
if the women should enter. The gift was an 
nounced, whereupon the whole congregation 
spontaneously arose and broke forth into sing-- 
ing the doxology. The following resolution 
was then passed: 

Resolved, That the Woman s Missionary Council, in 
annual session at Washington, D. C., in 1912, send a 
communication to the Board of Missions in its annual 
session, assuring it that if it is decided to open work in 
Africa the women will cooperate. 

The Board, in session the following May, ap 
propriated a minimum of fifteen thousand dol 
lars, which included the five thousand of the 
women, should they at that time enter the field. 

The first missionaries of the Board of Mis 
sions, General Work, reached Wembo-Niama 
in February, 1914. The Woman s Council 
had as volunteers Miss Kate Hackney and 
Miss Etha Mills. They were detained, how 
ever, and did not sail with the first mission 
aries. Miss Hackney was later sent to China 
and Miss Etta Lee Woolsey and Miss Kathron 
Wilson volunteered for service in Africa. 


They were accepted, but detained because of 
war conditions until 1917, when they, togeth 
er with Miss Mills, embarked upon their long 
and perilous journey, reaching their destina 
tion January 25, 1918. 

Miss Mills was appointed to serve in Lube- 
fu, the new outstation. She not only served 
as the teacher of the village, but was com 
pelled, because of lack of workers, to super 
vise the medical work in the dispensary. In 
her report of 1918 she says: 

Of course the medical work here, of necessity, has 
been confined to simple treatments, but this does not 
keep the more serious cases from coming. Many who 
are incurable come also. The task of extracting teeth 
is not a very pleasant one, especially as some of them 
are very hard to get out, being deeply rooted and firmly 
set in. I have not failed to get one yet, even though 
it took three separate pulls with all my strength. 

Miss Woolsey and Miss Wilson remained 
at Wembo-Niama, the former being in charge 
of the girls home and school. In her report 
of 1919 she says: 

We are glad to report that the new home built by 
the Council for its workers was finished during the 
quarter, and we moved in on July 25, just one year and 
a half to the day after our arrival at the mission. The 
house is comfortable, convenient, and pretty, even 
though the framework is made of trees from the forest 


tied together with vines, the walls of mud, and the roof 
of grass. Our floors are hand-sawed boards, as are 
also the window and door frames and the doors. Four 
of our windows are glass and the others are closed 
merely by shutters. The woodwork in the living and 
dining rooms is painted white, and against the soft 
dove gray of the mud wall, it is very pretty. Take our 
handsome library table in the center, several pretty 
rockers (all made by the industrial department), a few 
good pictures in frames on the wall, our white-dotted 
swiss curtains, several rugs, and we have a living room 
into which we would be proud to invite even Miss 
Bennett and Bishop Lambuth. 

The little band of workers served these first 
years under the handicap of a small force and 
poor equipment and were obliged to work their 
way slowly through the terrible ignorance, su 
perstition, and degradation of the African 
women. At the close of her second year Miss 
Woolsey writes: 

We have enrolled eight little girls during the last 
quarter, but we have only seven at present. One of the 
mission boys brought his little sister, but her husband 
objected to her being away, so that the father was com 
pelled to come and get the child. Then the boy brought 
his little wife in the place of his sister. She stayed two 
months, when the father said he wanted her for a 
slave; tj l.j "killed the marriage," as they say, in order 
to be abb to take the child from the mission. I did 
my best to keep her, for she was so unwilling to leave, 
but the old man would not listen ; so Nkoi took off her 
apron and went off wearing only the little square of 
scraps that she had pieced together in her sewing les- 


sons, the beginning of the little skirt of which she was 
so proud. She left crying, and called to us : "I am 
coming back." Poor child ! It is dreadful to see the 
way these little girls are sold in their infancy. Do 
pray for us as we try to train these children. 

Before she had been on the field more than 
a few months Miss Wilson, the trained nurse, 
was obliged to take the place of Dr. Mumpow- 
er, whose furlough was overdue. When he 
left, the entire mission was without a physi 
cian, and Miss Wilson was compelled to give 
medical aid, frequently performing some of 
the most difficult major operations. Her suc 
cess was nothing short of a miracle. The to 
tal number of patients in her first year of 
service was 4,422. 

In 1920 four recruits were sent out to this 
lone front line of the mission field. Miss Ruth 
Henderson, Miss Flora Foreman, Miss Marzie 
Hall, and Miss Eliza lies, Miss lies being a 
deaconess who was transferred from the 
Home Department in which she had given 
eight years of devoted service. 


On February 14, 1918, there was organized 
in the African mission a Woman s Missionary 
Society with an enrollment of forty-five char- 


ter members. In a short time the number 
was increased to fifty-five. The standard of 
dues adopted was one egg or its equivalent, 
one cent, in money. Miss Woolsey said: 

At the April meeting the women decided that they 
would like to have a share in the work of God by sup 
porting an evangelist in a village which had not yet 
had one. Accordinglly, they took the responsibility for 
the payment of his salary, $1.30. At first the chief of 
the village refused to enter the church, so the fifteen 
members of the society who are baptized Christians 
met for about two months with one of the missionaries 
once a week for special prayer for the chief and for 
Munadi, the evangelist. The chief, we are glad to say, 
began going to church. 

It should be noted that the labors of the 
years in Brazil, China, and Korea had begun 
to bear fruit, for in 1920 the Woman s Mis 
sionary Societies in those three fields were 
contributing to the uplift of Africa. 



To Christianize the community life means to per 
meate all its activities and relationships with the prin 
ciples and ideals of Jesus. It means to make the whole 
of life religious, so that there shall be no separation 
between the spirit of worship in the community and 
the spirit of its play, its work, and its government. 
The task is not the endeavor of a day. 

Christianity demands a fraternal community for the 
satisfaction of its ideals. It requires that men who call 
God Father should find the way to live as brothers. 
Now we have rifts and chasms. Our task is to bring 
the different groups of our community life, the divers 
nations and races of the world, together in a real 
brotherhood until there shall be no handicapped, ex 
ploited, dispossessed people, but all shall live together 
on terms of equal opportunity. Solidarity is not simply 
the dream of the workers at the bottom. It is the im 
perative of the gospel. "Christianising Community 
Life," by Ward-Edwards. 




IN the early days of the Woman s Parson 
age and Home Mission Society Miss Sue Ben 
nett, the Secretary of the Kentucky Confer 
ence Society, became interested in the people 
that lived shut away in the hills just within 
sight of the fertile valleys in which her home 
town of Richmond was located. Her inter 
est had been aroused by the Rev. J. J. Dickey, 
who was struggling to maintain a school in a 
mountain community fifty miles from any rail 
road. The great need of these people at her 
very door set her soul aflame, and through the 
enlistment of the children of her Conference 
she planned to come to the aid of Mr. Dick 
ey s school, which would have to close unless 
something could be done to meet the emer 
gency. However, before she had even taken 
the first steps toward the realization of this 
plan her labors on earth were ended. But the 
women of the Kentucky Conference had 
caught, through her inspiration and zeal, a 
12 (177) 


vision of the need, and they, together with the 
Central Committee, began to make plans for 
the mountain work. 

Mr. Dickey s school was, in the meantime, 
sold to the Presbyterians, but plans were at 
once projected for the establishment of a 
chain of schools in other mountain sections. 
Mrs. W. T. Pointer, President of the Ken 
tucky Conference Society, led in the work and 
was untiring in her efforts to help raise the 
needed funds. She sent out letters soliciting 
gifts and, together with her husband, went 
from place to place helping to arouse interest 
in the enterprise. 

London was selected as the most strategic 
point at which to begin, and the first term of 
the Sue Bennett School was opened in an old 
seminary building. In 1897, however, the 
large administration building was completed, 
and the school was opened that fall with sev 
enty-five pupils and a faculty numbering five. 
The first class was graduated in 1901. 

Prof. J. C. Lewis, of the Liverpool Uni 
versity, a man well equipped for the work, was 
for twenty years president of the school. 

In 1917 Prof. A. W. Mohn, of the Ohio 
Wesleyan and of the University of Chicago, 
and for nine years the head of the Ruth Har- 


grove School, Key West, succeeded Professor 
Lewis as principal. 

From its modest beginning the London 
School grew to be one of the most efficient 
secondary schools in the State of Kentucky. 
The report of 1919 shows an enrollment of 
students as follows: model school, 125; high 
school, 101 ; normal school, 74; school of 
business, 75; school of music, 172. The stu 
dents numbered 397 and the faculty 19. 

The extent of the influence of Sue Bennett 
can be measured only by the life and work of 
its students. It will be found that they have 
been scattered far and wide, engaging success 
fully in the various vocations of life one as 
a lawyer in Porto Rico ; another as a mission 
ary in China; others as superintendents and 
principals of schools in New York, Georgia, 
and Florida ; some as students at West Point ; 
others working as engineers in Pennsylvania 
and Kentucky; and still others as prominent 
business men. In 1919 it was calculated that 
ninety per cent of all the teachers in the county 
of Laurel, the county in which the school was 
located, had been students at the Sue Ben 
nett School. No more fitting memorial could 
be erected to the one in whose heart this work 


for mountain boys and girls was born than 
this great investment in life and character. 


In 1895 another mountain school was 
opened in Brevard, N. C, by Mr. Fitch Tay 
lor. The Woman s Parsonage and Home 
Mission Society was asked to share the ex 
pense of this school with the Epworth Leagues 
of North Carolina by supporting one teacher. 
In response to this request, Miss Armstrong 
was employed to teach in what was then 
known as the Brevard Epworth School. The 
first term was opened with one boarding pu 
pil, who, it was said, had been paid to come. 
This pupil, with a few from the town, made 
up the first enrollment. 

In 1900 the Western North Carolina Con 
ference adopted the school and appointed trus 
tees. In 1903, however, it was offered as a 
gift to the Woman s Board of Home Missions. 
A building had been begun which was still 
unfinished, and the committee of men who 
met the committee from the Woman s Board 
promised to be responsible for its completion 
if Miss Belle Bennett would tour the State 
in interest of funds. The school had been 
closed for two years, and to the women this 


call to enter into this new door of opportun 
ity seemed very clear. Accordingly, the work 
was undertaken, and Prof. E. E. Bishop was 
employed as Principal. He says in his first 

About September 11, 1903, I was employed to take 
charge of the Brevard Industrial School, to begin Oc 
tober 1, with everything finished and furnished. In 
stead of finding the house finished and furnished, I 
found a large building unpaintccl except priming, with 
out windows, doors, chimneys, or floors. The plaster 
ing was about half done, and the force at work on the 
house consisted of only two carpenters and two plas 
terers. I learned also that the treasury was entirely 
empty, the building committee in debt, and no funds in 
sight from any source. To make matters still worse, 
there were no written contracts and no specifications. 
The first thing to be done was to get money that we 
might put on a large force of men at once. The com 
mittee was persuaded to borrow about a thousand dol 
lars. On October 20 we opened school with a public 
meeting. Miss Bennett, Mrs. Branner, and Mrs. Acton 
were present. The next day fifty-two pupils were en 
rolled. The enrollment has steadily increased and is 
now one hundred and four. 

Mrs. F. H. E. Ross says concerning the 
final completion of the building and its pres 

Money was borrowed to put the building in shape 
and a mortgage given. Then came the struggle ; for 
the Board would not accept it till finished, furnished, 


and unencumbered. Something was secured from the 
Weddington estate, and the Western North Carolina 
Conference appropriated a few hundred dollars from 
the school fund year after year. The columns of the 
North Carolina Christian Advocate were open to our 
use, a .1 funds were solicited until we lacked only $325 
to lift the mortgage. A note was given for this amount 
signed by some friends, one of whom was our sainted 
Dr. George H. Detwiler, then pastor of West Market 
Street Church, Greensboro, N. C. In June, 1905, the 
annual meeting of the Conference Society was held in 
the city of Charlotte. On Saturday afternoon the long- 
prayed-for, hoped-for event took place the presenta 
tion of Brevard Industrial School to the Woman s 
Home Mission Board. Dr. Van Atkins, chairman of 
the Board of Trustees of the school, made a very pleas 
ing address in presenting the school, and Mrs. Frank 
Siler, in her usual happy manner, accepted the prop 
erty for the Board. 

Professor Bishop served until 1907 and 
was then succeeded by Prof. C. H. Trow- 
bridge, a graduate of Harvard University. 

The growth and growing influence of Bre 
vard Institute is shown in the 1914 report of 
its principal: 

Brevard Institute seems to be holding its own in 
every respect and going forward in many ways. The 
academic work is decidedly better than at any previous 
time, the faculty having more experience than ever be 
fore and holding the students to a higher grade of 
accuracy. The grammar and high school are very 
much crowded. The normal department is working 
along previous lines, and its graduates are still in de- 


mand wherever the work of the department is known. 
The music classes are very much as they have been, 
though in the fall there were so many pupils that it 
was necessary to employ an additional teacher for two 
days in the week. The commercial department con 
tinues its efficiency and is turning out well-equipped 
men and women, who are always placed within a few 
weeks after they are ready for a position. In no case 
has any graduate failed to be successful. The domes 
tic art department has more students than ever before 
and maintains the high grade of work which it has 
been doing. The purchase of additional ground gives 
. the agricultural department better opportunities than 
ever. There has been a considerable increase since last 
year in the amount of stock and in the value of the 
farm machinery. The youngest department to be or 
ganized is household economics. It is getting well 
under way this year and has developed a course that is 
thoroughly practical and valuable. Small classes have 
been organized in telegraphy, plumbing, and carpentry. 

A summer school was started in 1913. Very little 
advertising was done, but there were enough students 
to make it evident that summer work is practicable in 
this summer resort town. Two summer school camps 
for boys will be in operation this summer. A number 
of the girls made a respectable income for themselves 
by running a boarding house during the vacation 
months. This will be continued next year. The cot 
tages on the place are rented in the summer, and for 
several years a most delightful colony of people has 
spent the summer here. 

Th relations between the school and the community 
continue most cordial. Some members of the Council 
canvassed Brevard for two days in July and secured 
subscriptions amounting to more than three dollars for 
every man, woman, and child in the town. 


Six or seven acres of ground adjoining the campus 
have been purchased during the year, making a campus 
of about twenty-six acres located within the corporate 
limits of the town and still set off in such a manner 
as to secure a very high degree of protection. It would 
be difficult to arrange the school property more con 

With its enlarged boundary and the new administra 
tion building, it seems that Brevard is about to enter 
upon an era of increased growth. The dormitories 
have been practically full all the time during the past 
three years, and these developments will probably cause 
a very great increase in the number of applicants for 
admission. There are few schools in this section which 
are devoting as much of their energies to vocational 
work as Brevard Institute is doing, and it seems that 
the Institute should be able always to maintain its lead 
with the start it will have when school opens next fall. 

The success of Brevard Institute, like that 
of the Sue Bennett School, is measured by the 
success of its students, who have been able 
to occupy positions of trust and responsibility. 


The plan for the establishment of Sue Ben 
nett, though first to be conceived, was not 
the first to be realized, for in 1894, three years 
previous to the opening of the Sue Bennett, 
a school was begun in Tampa, Fla., for Cuban 
children with Miss Jennie Smither as Prin 


Mrs. Eliza Wolff, of St. Louis. Mo., had 
chanced to spend a season in Southern Flor 
ida and was much moved by the suffering of 
the Cuban people who were beginning to 
flock to our shores as workers in the tobacco 
factories. These factories were being moved 
into Florida in order to avoid the interruption 
caused by the conditions which eventuated in 
the Spanish-American War. Mrs. Wolff ap 
pealed to the Woman s Foreign Board and 
as a result, it was recognized that here was an 
open door which the newly organized Wom 
an s Parsonage and Home Mission Society 
should enter. At the second convention of this 
society, which was held in Nashville, Tenn., 
October 2-5, 1894, the need for a school on 
the Florida coast was presented and a propo 
sition made to raise one thousand dollars by 
securing one hundred ten-dollar shares. With 
in fifteen minutes all the shares were taken. 

A few months later the society opened its 
first school, Wolff Mission, so called in hon 
or of the one whose interest had launched 
the enterprise. In 1897 Miss Mary Bruce, 
afterwards Mrs. N. F. Alexander, a returned 
missionary from Brazil, became Principal. 
Through her friendly visiting, the homes of 
the people were opened and the Cuban worn- 


en began to identify themselves with the Cu 
ban Church. Night schools were undertaken 
for the men, many of whom were eager to 
learn the English language. Numbers of those 
in attendance later became interested in the 

In 1898 Miss Bruce was transferred to Key 
West and Miss Marcia Marvin, Miss Eliza 
beth Todd, Miss Josephine Baker, Miss Lula 
Ford, and Miss Lotie Adams, each in turn, 
served as Principal of the school. 

The following from the report of 1900 
shows some of the far-reaching results brought 
about by the institution: 

One Cuban girl returned to Cuba and now has a 
Sunday school in her house at a point where there are 
no other workers. A young man, a laughing, fun- 
loving boy, who came to the Friday evening socials, 
was brought into the Church. He returned to Cuba, 
married, and held preaching service in his house, thus 
forming the nucleus of a Church. And so it is, here 
one and there another. 

In the year 1914-15 more pupils were en 
rolled in Wolff Mission than ever before, but 
because of the better opportunities then being 
provided by the public schools of Florida the 
institution was closed in 1916 and the work of 
Wolff Settlement inaugurated. A gymnasium 


was erected, a clinic established, and a day 
nursery opened. The institution was thus 
made to serve the larger needs of the com 


The year following the opening of Wolff 
Mission (1895) a small school in West Tampa 
was opened in the home of two Spanish wom 
en, Mrs. Rosa and Miss Emelina Valdes, who 
were converts from Key West. The zeal of 
these women and their sympathetic appeal to 
the people made the work a success from the 
beginning. Mrs. Valdes deeded to the Wom 
an s Home Mission Board a lot adjoining 
her home, and upon this lot they built a two- 
room schoolhouse, which served also as a 
church. Mrs. Valdes, with the assistance of 
her niece, Miss Emelina Valdes, continued in 
charge of this school for twenty years. The 
little rooms were always full, and the chil 
dren of the day school crowded to the Sun 
day school on the Sabbath. Many of them be 
came Christians ; years later Christian fam 
ilies were found on the Island of Cuba who 
had received their inspiration while getting 
the rudiments of an education from these god 
ly women. 


After Mrs. Valdes s death, in 1912, the 
school was made into a Wesley House, where 
social features and gospel teachings were car 
ried on with marked success. The Council 
voted that the new building, when erected, 
should be called the Rosa Valdes Settlement, 
thereby perpetuating the work of the founder 
of the school. 


In 1898 Miss Mary Bruce opened in Key 
West, Fla., a school which afterwards came 
to be called the Ruth Hargrove Institute, in 
honor of the General Secretary, Mrs. R. K. 
Hargrove, who was vitally interested in the 
development of the Cuban work. The enroll 
ment was large from the beginning, and it 
soon became necessary to broaden the scope 
of the school, enlarging its capacity to meet 
the need not only of the Cuban children, but 
also of the English-speaking children of the 
community who were being forced, for lack of 
Protestant schools, to patronize Catholic in 

Miss Emily Reede was the second Principal, 
and during her five years administration the 
school grew to such proportions that the cam 
pus was enlarged and plans were made for a 


new building. In 1909 Prof. A. W. Mohn 
took charge, and in 1910 the enrollment 
reached seven hundred. 

In 1914, on their return from Brazil, Miss 
Bennett and Miss Gibson visited Key West 
and gave the following account of the school: 

Key West has a population of 25,000, 10,000 of whom 
are Negroes. The property we own is in the suburbs 
in the geographical center of the island, we are told. 
There are four buildings on a lot 550x200 feet, which 
will accommodate five hundred pupils (20 boarders). 
It is valued at $60,000. There are eleven churches in 
Key West, four of which are Methodist, having a mem 
bership of eight hundred. No other mission board is 
at work there. There are two Roman Catholic schools, 
two public schools, and forty schools for Negroes. 
Bruce Hall is a fine new school building, containing the 
largest auditorium in the city, which is used sometimes 
for lectures and concerts when a large hall is needed. 
Ruth Hargrove building is the home for teachers and 
students. Then there is the attractive Mattie Wright 
Kindergarten building and the residence of the prin 
cipal. The enrollment this year from September 1 to 
January 1 is 525; in 1911 it was 613; in 1912 it was 
609; and it is likely that the present year will see as 
large a representation. The school has twelve grades, 
a high-school department, a music department, a com 
mercial department, and a kindergarten with thirty- 
one pupils. The faculty mimbers nineteen, of whom 
five are men. All teachers are Protestants. There are 
thirteen Methodists, two Baptists, one Congregationalist, 
one Presbyterian, and two Episcopalians. The Bible is 
taught in every grade by the teachers. Professor 


Mohn feels the need of a graded course in the Bible 
covering twelve years. We visited every grade and 
saw the work on the board for examinations, and we 
approved what we saw. The night that we left a con 
cert was held in the chapel. For four years the prin 
cipal has had a lyceum course, charging $5 per season 
for ten entertainments. The immediate and imperative 
needs are a teachers cottage and athletic grounds. In 
answer to our question, "What returns have come to 
the school or Church from the pupils?" we were told 
that they are better citizens, better Christians, better 
men and women. They have been of immense benefit 
to the Church. The cost of maintaining this school 
was $9,875.80 plus fees of $4,815.57. 

It will be seen that the success of Ruth 
Hargrove School was marked. The demand 
it created for education brought about such 
improved conditions in the public schools of 
Key West that by 1917 they were adequate to 
meet the community s need. 

Mrs. MacDonell, Executive Secretary, says 
in her report of that year: 

The situation has greatly changed during these years, 
and we dare assert that the school has done much 
toward creating a demand for better educational ad 
vantages and that it has saved Key West to Prot 

At that time the building was leased for a 
marine hospital, and the following year was 
bought by the government at a price of fifty 


thousand dollars. Some years previous, the 
faculty of Ruth Hargrove had opened an ex 
tension day school in a congested Cuban dis 
trict. This was continued and land purchased 
in this district for the erection of a settlement 


Laredo Seminary, the history of which is 
told in the chapter on Mexico, was transferred 
to the Home Department of the Woman s Mis 
sionary Council in 1913. The name was 
then changed to Holding Institute for the pur 
pose of perpetuating the work of Miss Nannie 
Holding, who had for so many years put her 
life and energy into the development of the 

The school began its first year with four 
pupils, but in 1917 it enrolled three hundred 
and seventy-six, and more than two hundred 
were turned away for lack of room. In 1914 
seventy-five pupils came from across the 
border. Dr. J. M. Skinner was appointed 
Principal of the school at the time of its 
transfer to the Home Department and was still 
in charge in 1920. Holding Institute, in ad 
dition to a regular high-school curriculum, has 
provided a normal course for teachers, a com- 


mercial course for the training of clerks, ste 
nographers, and bookkeepers, and a course in 
domestic arts, thus giving training for nearly 
every walk in life upon which the students 
might enter. 


In 1903 Deaconess Annie Heath, while 
working in Thomasville, Ga., found a four 
teen-year-old girl in need of protection. She 
was too old for an orphanage, and the deacon 
ess could find no means of removing her from 
her dangerous environment. She appealed 
to the women of the local auxiliary, and 
through their influence Mr. Walter Blasin- 
game, of that city, gave four acres of land 
and a house of thirteen rooms, where Miss 
Heath and Efrle, the homeless girl, were sent 
to live. This was the beginning of the Vashti 
Industrial School for dependent girls. The 
home was named Vashti, thus honoring Mr. 
Blasingame s mother. Miss Heath and Ef- 
fie were not long alone, for two other girls 
were discovered in the poorhouse and brought 
to the home. Within two years, thirty-three 
girls had found their way to the school, and 
the house was now too small for their accom 
modation. The expense, too, had become 


more than the local auxiliary could meet, and, 
as a consequence, the work was transferred in 
1905 to the Woman s Board of Home Mis 

Ten years before the opening of the Vashti 
School, a cigar factory was opened in Cubana 
(little Cuba), a suburb of Thomasville, but, 
as it was found impossible to secure Cuban 
labor, in a few years the enterprise failed. 

When Vashti School outgrew its home, the 
Cubana property was selected as a desirable 
location. It was purchased by the citizens of 
Thomasville and presented to the Woman s 
Board of Home Missions in 1908. Prof. E. 
E. Bishop was elected Principal in the fall of 
1907, and the next January seventy-five girls 
and teachers took possession of the new home. 
Since that time there has been accommodation 
for ninety girls at a time, and yet not more 
than fifteen per cent of the applicants has been 
received. The girls who have been trained 
here have received an eighth grade literary 
course and, in addition, practical industrial 
training. With few exceptions, characters 
have been formed that have stood the test of 
life after leaving the school. Many have taken 
the responsibility of homes of their own, while 
others have gone to work in schools and fac- 


tories and hospitals. In 1919 Miss Charlotte 
Dye was elected Principal. 


At a meeting of the Woman s Board of 
Home Missions, held in St. Louis, Mo., in 
1901, a request was presented from Dr. Walk 
er, President of Paine College, Augusta, Ga., 
asking for the establishment of an industrial 
department for the Negro girls attending that 

Miss Belle H. Bennett, Mrs. J. D. Ham 
mond, and Mrs. R. W. MacDonell were 
guests of Mr. Richard Scruggs. Early on 
Sunday morning the three were in prayer to 
gether. Each arose from her knees persuaded 
that the Board should undertake this work 
and that this was the day to present it public 
ly and take a collection for its beginning. Miss 
Bennett at once called ten of the women over 
the telephone to come to the church for an 
executive session. These ten called others, so 
that promptly at nine o clock all responded 
to the roll call in the pastor s study at St. 
John s Church. Miss Bennett told them of 
the conviction that had come to the group of 
three. A resolution was promptly offered, 
and after discussion a vote was taken which 


was unanimous, with one exception. The dis 
senting vote came from one of the most en 
thusiastic missionary women, who held a con 
viction that she was not authorized to repre 
sent her Conference in this matter. There 
were many who feared that the undertaking 
would be unpopular, but all were willing to 
follow God rather than man. 

Miss Bennett was requested to present the 
matter to the congregation after the sermon, 
which was preached on that morning by Dr. 
Shailer Matthews. At no time in her life 
had she spoken more clearly or with greater 
conviction. When the collection was taken 
a number of men present were so moved that 
they arose at once to make large contribu 
tions. Dr. Palmore, with streaming eyes, 
pledged $500, and Miss Mary Helm gave 
$200. Miss Bennett subscribed $500, and 
practically every man and woman contributed 
something. Later, Mr. Richard Scruggs and 
Mr. Murray Carlton gave $500 each. Thus 
was launched the girls industrial department 
of Paine College, and within two years two 
buildings were erected on three acres of land 
adjacent to the school. Miss Ellen Young, 
graduate of Hampton Institute, was secured 
as matron in 1902 and for nine years rendered 


valuable service. She was assisted by three 
other teachers in this department. In 1913 
Bennett Hall, a large up-to-date dormitory, 
was erected at a cost of $27,000, a fitting mon 
ument to the faith and conviction of the one 
who had lead the women to take this step in 
the name of the Master. Concerning this 
work, Mrs. MacDonell, former Executive 
Secretary of the Home Department, writes in 

There are many colored teachers, wives, and mothers, 
graduates of Paine College, whose lives and homes at 
test the value of the training at the Annex. This was 
particularly true in the days when Ellen Young was 
matron. Many former students have written me. I 
have met others in my travels, all of whom have given 
witness to lives made stronger and better. 


The appeal of one unfortunate girl, yearn 
ing for a chance to lead a clean life, led to 
the establishment of the home in Dallas, Tex., 
which later came to be known as the Virginia 
K. Johnson School. When no place could be 
found for her shelter, Mrs. Johnson was led 
to the determination to open a Door of Hope. 
The King s Daughters were enlisted, and 
through their efforts a small building was 
rented, while other Christian women helped 


bear the expenses of the upkeep. It was 
found difficult, however, to maintain their in 
terest and Mrs. Johnson appealed in vain to 
the charitable organizations of the city to take 
over the work. Finally, she brought the mat 
ter before the North Texas Conference Home 
Mission Society at its annual meeting in 
Gainesville in 1895. After much prayer and 
consideration, the women of the Conference 
decided to undertake the support and enlarge 
ment of the institution. There was not an 
available dollar in the treasury and a debt 
rested on the local group in Dallas. There 
was, however, a vision of a long neglected 
need, the call of the Master, and prayer and 
faith. A gift of land having been secured 
from Mrs. Ann Browder Cunningham, Mrs. 
Johnson and Mrs. W. C. Young set out to 
raise money for the building. An agreement 
was made with an architect for a a five-thou 
sand-dollar building, expenses to be paid week 
by week, and work to be discontinued when 
money failed. The work, however, never 
stopped until the building was finished, and 
there was never more money in the treasury 
than was needed to pay the week s bills. In 
1898 the North Texas Conference turned the 
property over to the Woman s Board of Home 


Missions free of debt. After a few years the 
need of a better location, more land, and larger 
buildings resulted in the erection of a beauti 
ful $150,000 plant. Up to this time the school 
had been known as the Ann Browder Cun 
ningham Mission Home, but was now re 
named in honor of Mrs. Virginia K. John 
son, whose loving service had provided for 
thousands of friendless girls the shelter of a 

During the early years Mrs. Johnson acted 
as Principal, but later she was made agent 
and Mrs. M. L. Stone became Principal. She 
served three years and was then succeeded by 
Miss Sue Lyon and later by Mrs. O. M. Ab 
bott. After four years of service Mrs. Ab 
bott resigned, and Mrs. Stone was elected for 
the second time. In 1920 she had already 
given over ten years of efficient service to this 
institution, within whose walls many hopeless 
lives had been restored to self-support, inde 
pendence, and true character. 



THE organized work of city missions in the 
Church grew out of a real need and had its 
beginnings in the auxiliaries of the Woman s 
Home Mission Societies through the appoint 
ment ,of visiting committees. In the first 
quadrennial report of the Woman s Parson 
age and Home Mission Society, the General 
Secretary, Miss Lucinda B. Helm, says: "The 
majority of the auxiliaries report good work 
done by committees in visiting and aiding the 
poor, in Bible readings, in visits to the jails 
and benevolent institutions, and in developing 
Sunday school work. Many conversions have 
resulted in the large cities." 


The Central Committee soon began to real 
ize that if the work of city missions was to 
develop to any proportions there must be 
some centralizing, directing, and conserving 
force. As a result of this conviction, a con 
vention was called in St. Louis, May 9, 1893, 
for the purpose of considering plans of city 



evangelization. Miss Helm s report of this 
convention says: "Every one felt the Spirit of 
God was present. Great enthusiasm was 
aroused and, like another Pentecost, its in 
fluence radiated throughout the Church." 
The address of Dr. Walter Lambuth on "City 
Evangelization" helped greatly in arousing the 
convictions of the women who attended this 

This marked the beginning of a united ef 
fort in the work of city missions. At the close 
of the convention, representatives of the St. 
Louis auxiliaries came together at the call of 
Miss Helm and organized for work, employ 
ing Mrs. M. R. Skinner for special service. 
A few weeks later, the General Secretary was 
called to Nashville, where an organization was 
effected and Misses Tina and Emma Tucker 
were employed as city missionaries. Some 
months later, Miss Helm visited Atlanta and 
organized the forces in that city. Houston, 
New Orleans, and Los Angeles are also men 
tioned in the reports as having begun a united 
work as a result of the St. Louis convention. 


At the beginning of the second quadrennium 
(1894), Miss Helm resigned as General Secre- 


,tary and Mrs. Nathan Scarritt (afterwards 
Mrs. R. K. Hargrove) was elected to the of 

Another advanced step in the permanent or 
ganization of city mission work was made in 
this year, when the General Conference pro 
vided for the formation of city mission boards, 
these to be composed of two members from 
each cooperating auxiliary, each auxiliary 
being allowed to elect its own representatives. 
The finances were to be provided for by the 
different societies taking their apportionments. 

Mrs. Hargrove continued to serve as Gen 
eral Secretary until the year 1900. Her re 
port of that year shows that city mission work 
was being conducted in Nashville, in New 
Orleans, in Kansas City, and in Waco. All 
of these cities were employing workers, and 
two of them were raising budgets of approxi 
mately twelve hundred dollars each. St. Louis 
had a city mission board and was carrying on 
quite an extended work through volunteer 
service. The types of service up to this time 
had been largely that of rescue work, house- 
to-house visitation, and distribution of litera 
ture for the most part, purely personal work ; 
although there had begun to be some institu- 


tional features ; such as, kindergartens, sewing 
schools, and mother s and children s meetings. 


Mrs. R. W. MacDonell was elected to suc 
ceed Mrs. Hargrove as General Secretary. 
Her broad vision and constructive mind soon 
began to give new form to the work. The 
leaders of philanthropy were beginning to real 
ize that of far greater value than work for 
people was work ivith people, so here and 
there, through the social settlement, the con 
tagion of the higher life was being brought 
to bear upon the hitherto detached masses of 
the crowded cities and industrial centers. 

So it was, that with Mrs. MacDonell s ad 
ministration there began another stage in the 
development of city missions; and in co 
operation with the Nashville City Board the 
new General Secretary opened the first Church 
settlement in the South in September, 1901. 
A house, which had formerly been a pool 
room, was rented and made habitable. Be 
low there was a large hall in which the work 
was conducted, while above were clean and at 
tractive living rooms for the workers. Miss 
Minerva Clyce (afterwards Mrs. J. E. Me- 


Culloch) and Miss Martha Frost were the 
first Residents. 

Miss Clyce had been trained in the Scarritt 
Bible and Training School; and her alertness 
of mind, powers of initiative, and unfailing 
devotion especially fitted her for leadership in 
the new enterprise. This settlement was 
the center of all eyes, for it was to set the 
standard for all future work. 

Pioneering the way as good neighbors in a 
community full of poverty, ignorance, and 
drunkeness meant days and nights of toil and 
anxiety. It proved to be worth the cost, how 
ever, for it was found, fifteen years later, that 
self-respecting people were choosing to live 
in this same community because of the ad 
vantages of the settlement, so changed had 
the community become. 

In the year following the establishment of 
the settlement in Nashville, three other settle 
ments were opened. At Atlanta, Ga., work 
was begun in the Fulton Bag and Cotton Mill 
community with Miss Rosa Lowe, a trained 
nurse, as Head Resident. This was for years 
one of the largest settlements throughout the 
connection, carrying on the most varied ac 

In the fall of 1902 Miss Estelle Haskin was 


called to Dallas, Tex. There were months of 
waiting on her part before a footing could be 
secured in the district which seemed to have 
the most crying need. Finally, because noth 
ing better could be done, a small four-room 
cottage was rented and she, with two conse 
crated girls from the Ann Browder Mission 
Home and Training School, went to live in a 
neighborhood where there were twenty-five 
saloors. within a radius of six blocks of the 
Settlement House, and where the houses of ill- 
fame were blighting the lives of young men 
and women as well as little children. The 
neighborhood responded so quickly to the spir 
it of neighborliness that in two months time 
one hundred Sunday school pupils were packed 
into a room sixteen by eighteen feet and class 
es were being conducted in every room in the 
house. The hallway was converted into a din 
ing room, and because of its publicity some of 
the community were usually present at morn 
ing prayers. The experience was one of liv 
ing ivith the community rather than in it, but 
it proved to be another demonstration of the 
power of personal contact. 

About the same time Miss Mattie Wright 
was asked to come to St. Louis to direct the 
work known as the Sloan Mission. 


She wrote, "I will come at once," and added in her 
characteristic way : "Look for a little old maid in a 
brown suit, carrying a straw suitcase." Because of 
her almost insignificant physical appearance, the women 
of the City Mission Board, upon first meeting her, 
doubted her ability for the task undertaken, but these 
doubts were quickly dispelled. She had a most in 
domitable spirit. No difficulties were too great for her 
to overcome. She started the work at old Sloan Mis 
sion in very small quarters and with no equipment. 
When she took charge, a policeman stood at the door 
to prevent the rough boys of the neighborhood from 
breaking up the services by throwing brickbats into 
the room. For the sake of privacy, a screen stood 
inside the door, but Miss Wright moved it and told 
the policeman she would take his place. She met the 
boys with a smile and a pleasant word and so shamed 
them by her kindly spirit that they became her best 
friends and supporters. 

Miss Wright gave herself the name of "general 
utility deaconess," for she did everything from con 
ducting Church services to playing the part of janitor 
when that individual failed to appear. Kingdom House 
would not be where it is to-day had it not been piloted 
through days of storm and stress by this brave spirit 
who, in the face of overwhelming obstacles, wrested 
achievement out of seeming impossibilities. (From 
leaflet by Mrs. C. M. Hawkins.) 

In 1905 the old Sloan Mission house was 
sold and the work moved a block away to a 
larger and better building. The name was at 
that time changed to Kingdom House. 



In 1902 the Woman s Board of Home Mis 
sions sent a memorial to the General Confer 
ence asking for the establishment of the office 
of deaconess. The memorial was granted, 
and the following year the first five deacon 
esses Miss Mattie Wright, Miss Amy Rice, 
Miss Elizabeth Davis, Miss Annie Heath, and 
Miss Arabel Weigle were consecrated. The 
establishment of the deaconess office and the 
opening of settlements gave a new impetus to 
the work in the cities. In 1904 Mrs. Mac- 
Donell reported seven settlements, twenty- 
nine salaried workers, and forty-six volunteer 

The success came, however, in the face of 
stanch opposition. Many of the preachers 
opposed the settlement, not considering its 
work to be religious. In order to overcome 
opposition to the same forms of service con 
ducted by the founder of Methodism in the 
name of religion, the Woman s Board of 
Home Missions, at its annual meeting in 1907, 
decided to give the name Wesley House to 
the settlements under its direction. There was 
much in the name, for it overcame prejudice 
and gave to the work a new popularity. 



One of the great tasks accomplished through 
the city mission enterprise has been that of 
the Christian Americanization of the foreign- 
born. In numbers of cities vast communities 
of foreign-born people have been Christian 
ized and Americanized. 

In 1907 a site was selected in New Orleans 
below Canal. Street in a district where it was 
said that more nationalities were represented 
than in any other city in the country. Here 
a work was jointly begun by the Woman s 
Board of Home Missions, the General Board 
of Missions, the Board of Church Extension, 
and the local City Mission Board. The insti 
tution was given the name of St. Mark s Hall. 

Miss Margaret Ragland was the first Head 
Resident. Within three years after the estab 
lishment of the work, over forty Italians were 
added to the membership of Second Street 
Methodist Church. This led to the organiza 
tion of an Italian Church, which for seven 
years worshiped in the parlors of St. Mark s. 
In 1918 a small church house was erected for 
the congregation. The clinic, which was for 
a number of years conducted by Miss Kate 


Wilson (later a missionary to Africa) was one 
of the most successful activities. 

Miss Martha Nutt, a returned missionary 
from Mexico succeeded Miss Ragland as Head 
Resident. Miss Nutt was a great evangelistic 
force in the community and helped in unify 
ing the philanthropic organizations of the city. 
It was also through her cooperative efforts 
that commercialized vice was greatly limited 
and forces set to work which tended to the 
breaking up of the legalized districts. 

At Birmingham, Ala., the Ensley Com 
munity House was established in 1913 to serve 
a large community of Italians working for 
the Tennessee Coal, Iron & Railroad Com 
pany. Miss Dollie Crim, as Head Resident, 
was a great organizing force in the communi 
ty from its beginning and during the World 
War was particularly successful in rallying 
her community for patriotic service. 

At Forth Worth, Tex., a Wesley House was 
located in a packing house district, where 
there lived Greeks, Mexicans, Bohemians, and 
Russians. The Head Resident, Deaconess 
Eugenia Smith, with her genius for winning 
people, brought into existence a regularly or 
ganized Church among the Mexicans. In one 
year two hundred children were enrolled in 


the Sunday school and twenty-five adults 
joined the Church. 

In 1912 a Wesley House was opened in a 
Mexican district in San Antonio, Tex. Dea 
coness Almeda Hewitt and Deaconess Ella 
Bowden were the pioneers who made possible 
this beginning. The difficulties encountered 
by them were not so much those involved in 
the task of winning the Mexicans as in the 
overcoming of racial prejudice in the Amer 
ican Churches. Within a year after the open 
ing of the house it was too small to accommo 
date the work. To meet this great growing 
opportunity to win Mexico on this side of the 
Rio Grande, a joint work was established be 
tween the local City Board and the Woman s 
Missionary Council. A new house was erected 
in 1917- The Wesley House here became a 
great factor in helping to conserve and 
strengthen the neighborhood Mexican Church. 

In 1904 Major Toberman, of Los Angeles, 
gave to the Woman s Board of Home Mis 
sions $10,000 for the building of a hospital 
and $20,000, the interest on which was to be 
used for nursing the "Lord s sick poor." In 
1913 work was developed in a densely popu 
lated Mexican district in a different section 
of the city. Later, the Homer Toberman Dea- 


coness Hospital was sold with the purpose 
of reinvesting the money in the Homer Tober- 
man Clinic and Settlement that had been 
opened in this Mexican district. The work 
of building was delayed, and in 1920 the clin 
ic and a night school were still being con 
ducted in a small and poorly equipped build 
ing. However, over two thousand patients 
were being treated annually, and out of the 
social ministry of the deaconesses a Mexican 
Church had been organized. 

Within a few years after the opening of 
the work in Dallas, Tex., in 1903, the char 
acter of the community had so changed that 
the settlement was moved to a cotton mill dis 
trict. The work, however, was continued in 
connection with a small chapel which had 
been taken over from the Northern Method 
ists. It was later named Wesley Chapel. 
For a number of years there was such a 
sway of evil that little could be accomplished. 
In 1915, however, Deaconess Rhoda Dragoo 
writes : 

On November 3, 1913, when the red-light district 
was abolished, Wesley Chapel entered upon a new 
period of its existence. New forms of social service 
were organized to meet the needs of the changing popu 
lation. The kindergarten was the first social feature 
introduced, and it was a joy to be able to gather the 


little tots into the chapel and know that the blighting 
influence of vice had been removed from their lives so 
far as the law could do it. The population is almost 
entirely foreign. Mexicans and Russian Jews predomi 
nate. Only through the kindergarten and sewing school 
are we able to touch Jewish life. Jewish fathers and 
mothers are manifesting a keen interest in this work. 
The night school was organized for Mexicans only. 
Men and women are eager to learn English. The con 
dition of the Mexican is pitiful ; but Wesley Chapel is 
making the most of his extremity, and he is being given 
a vision of Christian fellowship. 

In 1907 a mission was enterprised at Biloxi, 
Miss., in a district where five large oyster 
canning factories were giving employment to 
several thousand people. Concerning the 
character of this community, the first mission 
ary, Miss Minnie Boykin, says in her report 
of 1908: 

Besides the resident population, there is a large pop 
ulation of people shipped here every year to work in 
the canning factories. These come in October and re 
turn in May, when the oyster season is over. They are 
shipped from Baltimore and other Northern cities in 
box cars like cattle and are treated not much better 
when they get here. Belonging to each factory are two 
or more long shedlike buildings two or three hundred 
feet long cut up into small rooms, two rooms being 
allowed for a family, regardless of the size. Most of 
the men work on boats and the women and children 
in factories. Children from five years old and up work. 
When oysters and shrimps are plentiful, they are re- 


quired to begin work in the factory at three o clock 
in the morning, and in shrimp season they work late 
at night and often part of Sunday. The acid in the 
shrimp eats up the hands and fingers. I have seen 
little children with their hands swollen stiff, the skin 
all peeled off and bleeding. All day they must stand 
with their hands in this eating acid, their feet on the 
cold, wet floor. 

The work was opened in a small cottage 
and without local support. The Mississippi 
Conference Society afterwards purchased a 
house which they renovated to suit the needs 
of the settlement. They also supplemented 
the appropriation of the Council for current 


The reports show that by the year 1914 
missions were being conducted among foreign 
people in the mine fields of Oklahoma, Texas, 
Missouri, and West Virginia. Concerning the 
field at Hartshorne, Okla., Deaconess Willena 
Henry writes: 

This work is supported by the East Oklahoma 
Woman s Missionary Conference Society and embraces 
a territory about fifteen miles long and two or three 
miles wide, with more than twenty nationalities among 
the six thousand foreigners. In or near the seven 
towns in this territory are ten or twelve coal mines, 
giving employment for most of the foreigners. These 


people are untouched by any religious influence except 
the Catholic Church, Roman and Russian, and many 
of them are drifting away from these. 

The mission in the lead belt of Missouri 
was carried on for seven years through the ef 
forts of the St. Louis Conference Society. 
The interesting possibilities found there are 
shown in the following from Deaconess Laura 
Proctor in her 1916 report: 

I arrived on June 2. A few days later, in company 
with Miss Wike, a tour of the foreign villages was be 
gun. Each day a new village was entered and a new 
nationality visited. One day it was an Italian village, 
the next a Polish, another an Austrian or a Russian. 
When the itinerancy had been made and the ten villages 
visited, I felt as though I had been peering into a 
kaleidoscope which showed about thirteen different 
nationalities in highly colored costumes. These quaint 
villages, with the people in native costumes and speak 
ing their native tongues, were very interesting at first. 
Yet in an instant back of this could be seen the great 
need of religious instruction and social service. The 
harvest is truly white and the laborers few in compari 
son with the great host of foreigners found here. 

One year later a cyclone demolished the 
Wesley House. To complete the tragedy six 
weeks afterwards strange men came into the 
lead belt and incited the American employees to 
rioting. The foreign men were stoned and 
driven from their work and their wives and 


children thrust from their homes. Finally, at 
the point of a gun, they were loaded into cars 
and shipped to St. Louis. Because of these 
dreadful events, incident to World War con 
ditions, it became necessary to close the work. 

The work in the coal fields at Thurber, 
Tex., was opened in 1908 by the Central Tex 
as Conference Society. Marston Hall, the so 
cial and religious center, through the ministry 
of the workers appointed by the Council, 
served a population of 6,500 Americans, Ital 
ians, Mexicans, and Poles. 

In 1914 a mission was begun in the West 
Virginia coal mines by the Holston Confer 
ence Society. It was soon extended into a 
number of centers, serving Americans, Hun 
garians, Italians, Syrians, Slavs, Poles, and 


Soon after coming into office, Mrs. Har 
grove, the General Secretary, made a visit to 
the West and became greatly aroused over the 
needs of Oriental people on the Pacific Coast. 
It was, therefore, largely through her influ 
ence that the work was begun in 1897. Miss 
Mary Helm, editor of Our Homes, visiting 
the coast mission, gained such a thorough 



knowledge of conditions among the Orientals 
that she was able to make a strong appeal in 
their behalf. While there she rented suitable 
buildings and put competent workers in 
charge. The summer following two hundred 
and seven Chinese and Japanese were en 
rolled in the schools, and eleven had joined 
the Church. 

In 1903 Dr. C. F. Reid (returned mission 
ary from Korea) was made Superintendent 
of the Pacific Coast work. In November of 
that same year our first Japanese Church was 
organized in Alameda, Cal., a second in San 
Francisco, while a little later a third was or 
ganized in Oakland. Still later, work was 
opened in Dinuba, Sacramento, and Isleton. 
At each of these points a native pastor was 
put in charge and regular Church activities 
were carried on. At Alameda regular forms 
of settlement work were opened, and, at the re 
quest of the Japanese themselves, the institu 
tion was called Mary Helm Hall. 

After the earthquake in 1906, the four mis 
sion boards that were at work on the coast 
agreed upon a division of territory and the 
Korean work fell to the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South. The Korean Church at San 
Francisco was located in a rented house on 


Bush Street. Rev. Ju Sam Ryang, a young 
Korean, had just come to this country for the 
purpose of securing a university education. 
Dr. Reid induced him to postpone college work 
until he had established the new Church for 
Koreans. With alertness of mind, depth of 
spiritual life, and a gift for organization Mr. 
Ryang plunged into this undertaking. Three 
years he remained as pastor, setting a standard 
for our Korean missions. He also edited a 
Korean magazine. After the lapse of a year s 
time, the mission secured as pastor the Rev. 
David Lee, a graduate of the University of 
California. The Korean missions grew under 
his ministry until, in 1918, regular services 
were being held at the following appoint 
ments: San Francisco, Sacramento, Manteca, 
Stockton, Oakland, Marysville, Willow, Max 
well, and Tracy and occasional meetings in 
about six other camps in the rice fields where 
there were a number of Korean laborers. 

In 1910 Mr. and Mrs. William Acton suc 
ceeded Dr. Reid as Superintendents of the 
coast mission. Under their supervision there 
was great growth and progress. The ac 
tivities of Mary Helm Hall were multiplied 
and seven additional centers of work estab 
lished. In the new centers the converts from 


the older mission for the most part became 
the missionaries in charge. 


In 1910 the Board of Missions appointed a 
missionary to serve among the French people 
who lived in the territory of the sugar planta 
tions. It was found that in this region there 
were eighty miles of houses so close together 
that a message could be sent from one end 
to the other merely by speaking from house 
to house. Very little English was known and 
the people lived shut away from the reach of 
civilization. They were, of course, largely 
Roman Catholic. 

Two years after the missionary began work 
he asked for the assistance of a deaconess. In 
response to this request, Miss Eliza lies, a 
Louisianian by birth, was appointed to this 
field and gave unstinted service for two years. 
The pastor and deaconess, working together, 
organized Churches at a number of appoint 
ments. In a short time Miss Kate Walker 
was added to the working force. For three 
years Miss Walker conducted clubs, classes, 
missionary societies, and other work at the 
Houma Church. In the fall of 1917 Miss 
Ella Hooper and Mrs. Laura White were ap- 


pointed to this interesting field. Their head 
quarters were located at Houma because of its 
accessibility to all points in the Terre Bonne 
and La Fourche Parishes. They established 
a home at Houma and divided the field be 
tween them. An automobile was furnished 
these workers by the Council, so that they were 
able to make more accessible their extended 


Because of the large number of cotton mill 
people in the South and their appalling need, 
Wesley Houses were opened in many mill 
communities in rapid succession. Atlanta, 
Ga., was the first. Then followed Augusta, 
Ga. ; Birmingham, Ala. ; Knoxville, Tenn. ; 
Meridian, Miss. ; Spartanburg, S. C. ; Winston- 
Salem, N. C. ; Orangeburg, S. C. ; Greenwood, 
S. C. ; Macon, Ga. ; Danville, Va. ; and Griffin, 

The Wesley Houses served these communi 
ties through day nurseries for children of 
working mothers, night schools for those who 
were deprived of the privilege of the public 
school, kindergartens for the little ones, and 
industrial classes for boys and girls. They 
also became religious and social centers for 


those whose lives would otherwise have been 
empty and impoverished. 


In Kansas City, Mo., St. Louis, Mo., St. 
Joseph, Mo., Louisville, Ky., Memphis, Tenn., 
Mobile, Ala., Montgomery, Ala., Murfrees- 
boro, Tenn., Richmond, Va., and San Fran 
cisco, Cal., City Mission Boards were organ 
ized and settlements established to serve in in 
dustrial centers of mixed population. 


In 1903 Miss Mabel Ho well was added to 
the force of teachers in the Scarritt Bible and 
Training School as professor of sociology. 
It immediately became apparent that there 
must be developed a center of work where 
students might secure practical training. As 
a result of Miss Howell s efforts, the forces 
of the mission Church and the City Mission 
Board w r ere brought together. The city at 
large became interested in the enterprise, and 
within a short time an institutional church 
was erected. Much credit is due the Rev. M. 
Charles Moore for the successful establish 
ment of this the first Institutional Church. It 


was a triumph over active opposition on the 
part of numbers of Church leaders. 

The extent of the influence of this institu 
tion is shown in its by-products. The work of 
its deaconesses among the children of the 
Juvenile Court revealed the need of a receiv 
ing home where they might be kept in comfort 
and safety until permanently placed in some 
institution or returned to their parents. Mrs. 
T. B. Spofford deeded a splendid property to 
the City Board of Kansas City and thus en 
abled it to extend its work in the support of a 
receiving home named for its donor. The 
Boys Hotel Association grew to be an institu 
tion because of the effort of these same women 
to care for the small boy of the street. The 
Octavia Hill Association, providing clean, 
wholesome apartments at nominal prices for 
working women, was also a product of the 
effort of the Methodist women of Kansas 


The Woman s Missionary Council held its 
first meeting in St. Louis. At this time Miss 
Mary DeBardeleben presented herself as a 
candidate for Negro work. A number of 
years before God had spoken to this young 
woman on one Christmas eve making her un- 


derstand that she was unworthy of appoint 
ment to a foreign field unless she were will 
ing to minister to the Negroes at her own 
door. The surrender was made, but no en 
couragement came to her that she might serve 
the people to whom she was called until she 
went to the Methodist Training School at 
Nashville, Tenn., to prepare for work in Ja 
pan. There she found those upon whom God 
was laying the same burden. The result of it 
all was that at an afternoon session of the 
St. Louis meeting in 1911 she came before the 
Council; and the members, deeply touched, 
pledged her in that sacred hour that they would 
"hold the ropes" while she, as their first repre 
sentative, entered upon this most needy mis 
sion field of the South. She was sent to Au 
gusta Ga., where in 1912 she opened in an 
abandoned near-beer establishment the Coun 
cil s first Christian settlement for Negroes. 
The institution during the first months of its 
history went by the name of Galloway Hall, in 
honor of Bishop Galloway, who never ceased 
to speak in behalf of the Negroes. The Coun 
cil decided at its meeting in 1913 that settle 
ments conducted for Negroes should be called 
Bethlehem Houses. 

The conviction of the members of the Meth- 


odist Training School during these years \vas 
taking form and becoming tangible. Very 
early in its history Mrs. Sallie Hill Sawyer, 
a godly member of Capers Chapel (the largest 
Colored Methodist Episcopal Church in Nash 
ville, Tenn.), came to a member of the faculty 
asking for help in her Church. Because of 
her oft-repeated appeals and because of the 
dire need of a neighboring Negro community, 
definite organized work was begun by the 
Training School in the year 1913 in the base 
ment of a colored Presbyterian Church. For 
the first year the funds were furnished and 
the work was done by the teachers and stu 
dents. The following year an appropriation 
was made by the Woman s Missionary Coun 
cil, a house was rented, and the patient pray 
ing of "Mother Sawyer" (so called by the col 
ored people) was rewarded. She herself 
was the first resident settlement worker ever 
employed for the Bethlehem House work. 
She remained the House Mother of the Nash 
ville Bethlehem House until the time of her 
death, in 1918. 

The work at this point was distinctive, in 
that it furnished a training center for the So 
cial Science Department of Fisk University, 
one of the leading Negro universities of the 


South. The Bethlehem House touched the en 
tire city in its influence and set an example of 
racial cooperation for the South. Miss Estelle 
Haskin represented the Council as the super 
visor of this work and was succeeded by Miss 
Rosa Breeden in 1918 who was at that time ap 
pointed supervisor. 


The workers and the City Board members 
soon began to discover that the low wage and 
the cheap boarding house constituted the great 
est menace to the life and character of the 
working woman. As a consequence there was 
developed a new form of service in the estab 
lishment of the cooperative home for working 

At Waco, Tex., a City Board was organ 
ized in 1902. Soon afterwards they donated 
property to the Woman s Home Mission So 
ciety for a deaconess home and training school. 
An effort to use the building for settlement 
work was unsuccessful because the location 
was not suitable. However, through the inter 
est of Mrs. Rebecca Sparks and a local Meth 
odist preacher the house was opened to a half 
dozen country girls for board, and in 1909 the 
property was returned to the local City Board, 


the house was enlarged, and the institution be 
came known as the Rebecca Sparks Coopera 
tive Home for Working Women. 

In 1908 Miss -Mattie Wright was sent to 
Houston, Tex., to open settlement work among 
foreign-born people segregated near the rail 
road centers. Within a few days she found a 
young girl from the country who had come to 
Houston to make her way in the business 
world. She took this homeless young woman 
to the Settlement Home, and before she real 
ized it she had gathered twelve girls under its 
roof. The need for an institution of this type 
and the system and dispatch demonstrated by 
Miss Wright appealed to the business men of 
Houston. Within four years a handsome 
three-story brick building, large enough to 
accommodate seventy-five persons, was erected 
and donated to the Houston District for Meth 
odist women to use as a home for working 
girls. The stories of the lives saved through 
this effort proved the wisdom of Miss Wright 
in her pioneer work at Houston. 

Lexington, Ky., soon established a similar 
home, which, under the guidance of Miss El 
liott, came to be a saving center in a complex 
city life. 

Under the leadership of Mrs. Ross With- 


erspoon, at Jackson, Tenn., another home came 
into existence, but soon passed from the Meth 
odist Church to an interdenominational enter 

At Corinth, Miss., a community small nu 
merically but important from the standpoint 
of the young country girl, a Cooperative Home 
was established by the North Mississippi Con 
ference Society under the guidance of Deacon 
ess Mary Daniel. This home soon came to be 
one of the recognized social centers of Cor 

The City Board at Savannah, Ga., estab 
lished a plant known as the Robert Mclntyre 

In 1914, at San Francisco, Cal., through 
the liberality of Mrs. L. H. Glide, the Mary 
Elizabeth Inn was erected and deeded to the 
Board of Missions for the use of the Woman s 
Missionary Council. This building was made 
to accommodate more than one hundred and 
eight persons, and during one year more than 
eight hundred women were turned away for 
lack of room. 


In 1907, when the tide of European immi 
grants began to come to the South, Port Gal- 



veston furnished the largest and most attrac 
tive entry. At that time there were no agen 
cies for the help of these immigrants, save a 
magnificent plant conducted by New York 
Jews for Jewish immigrants only. Jointly 
with the General Board of Missions the Wom 
an s Board of Home Missions opened a home 
for immigrants. For four years this center 
served as a blessing to these people who could 
speak no English and were thereby victims of 
many impositions. Thousands of people were 
met by the missionaries in charge and directed 
to centers where work was found for them. 
Each one was given a chance to know some 
thing of the better things of our American 
civilization. From all parts of the United 
States letters of gratitude returned to the mis 
sionary in charge. In 1912 the government 
erected an immigrant home on Pelican Island, 
so there was no longer need for our institution. 
Despite the fact that the government cared 
for these foreigners in a most efficient man 
ner, the Woman s Missionary Council never 
theless found it necessary to retain a port mis 
sionary at Galveston. 

In 1907 there was also established a Sea 
man s Rest at Gulfport, Miss., with the Rev. 
W. D. Griffin in charge. It was a rest home, 


a social center, and a place where religious 
services were conducted for the men of the 
sea. In 1917, when the Great War was de 
clared, fewer sailors came to this country, not 
enough to warrant the continuance of the in 
stitution. A great work was done, however, 
in the ten years that this mission was in opera 
tion, and the Superintendent had assurances 
from all parts of the country that the Sail 
ors Rest had filled a great need. 



"0 tender Shepherd, climbing rugged mountains 

And crossing waters deep, 
How long wouldst thou be willing to go homeless 

To find a straying sheep? 
I count no time, the Shepherd gently answered, 

As thou dost count and bind 
The weeks in months, the months in years ; 

My counting is just until I find. 
And that would be the limit of my journey 

I d cross the waters deep 
And climb the hillsides with unfailing patience 

Until I find my sheep. " 



THE Scarritt Bible and Training School, lo 
cated at Kansas. City, Mo., has a record of 
twenty-eight years of splendid and efficient 
service. It has been the life expression of two 
women: Miss Belle H. Bennett, out of whose 
prayer-thought it became a reality, and Miss 
Maria Layng Gibson, who for o ver twenty- 
five years molded and directed its life into a 
world-wide service. 


The Woman s Board was sending to for 
eign fields women who were untried and un 
trained or those who had been obliged to se 
cure their training in another Church. That 
our Church was not meeting its obligation to 
its ambassadors became to Miss Bennett a bur 
den from which she could not escape. How to 
meet their need was her one burning thought 
by day and by night, and God was with her 
in such closeness and power that the establish- 



ment of a training school was a divine call to 
which she responded with the dedication of 
herself to its accomplishment. 

In the year 1889 the Woman s Board of 
Foreign Missions met in Little Rock, Ark., 
and at the earnest solicitation of Mrs. S. C. 
Trueheart, Miss Bennett attended for the pur 
pose of presenting to the women her thought 
of a missionary training school. She was just 
recovering from a long illness, and in speak 
ing of the incidents of this meeting she says: 

I was too sick and too frightened to stand upon my 
feet when I was called to speak. The President, Mrs. 
Hayes, seeing my condition, said : "Come right here, 
Miss Bennett, sit down in this chair and talk it over 
with us." I did so, standing when I became excited. 
I poured out the whole thought of my heart as I talked 
with them about the splendid training that was~~given 
to doctors and lawyers and professional men of all 
kinds. "And yet," I said, "we are trying to send out 
young men and young women to the great dark lands 
to teach a new religion that they themselves know little 
about." When I finished, a few questions were asked, 
and a prayer was offered by Mrs. Nathan Scarritt, of 
Kansas City, asking God to make the school a reality. 

Although the difficulties involved in under 
taking a task necessitating so large an expendi 
ture of money seemed almost insurmountable, 
yet so strong was the impression of God s 


call to this task that the following resolutions 
were passed: 

Resolved, That the Board has heard Miss Bennett s 
address with pleasure and, recognizing the great im 
portance of its subject, does hereby appoint her as 
agent of the Woman s Board of Foreign Missions of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, to fully investi 
gate the matter of a training school for missionaries 
and does empower her to represent its claims through 
out the Church, to enlist the sympathy and aid of the 
workers, and to collect funds, reporting results to the 

Resolved, That she be directed also to present this 
matter to other Mission Boards and to ask their in 
terest and patronage with the view that their mis 
sionaries may have the benefit of the advantages thus 

Resolved, That Miss Bennett be furnished by this 
Board with all necessary credentials to show that she 
is its duly appointed agent. 

Upon the unanimous passage of these reso 
lutions Miss Bennett \vas so overwhelmed at 
the manner in which God was answering her 
own prayers that she immediately arose, say 
ing: "But, ladies, I do not know how to do it, 
I do not know the Church, I do not as much 
as know how to begin." Even as she protest 
ed, however, there came to her with over 
whelming power the remembrance of her vow 
to God, and as the women pledged themselves 
to stand behind her with their prayers and ef- 


forts she consented to undertake the work. 
The promise, "Commit thy works unto the 
Lord, and thy thoughts shall be established," 
became her staying power and her strength 
and the foundation on which the Scarritt Bi 
ble and Training School was built. 

It was decided that all subscriptions should 
be secured from individuals and that the aux 
iliaries should not be taxed. At that time 
members of the Board pledged as follows: 
Mrs. Adam Hendrix, $100; Mrs. E. C. Dow- 
dell, $100; Mrs. Julianna Hayes, $100; Miss 
Mary Helm, $25; Mrs. J. B. Cobb, $50; and 
Mrs. C. H. Hall, $50 making a total of $425 
as the beginning of the fund. 

Miss Bennett was being entertained in the 
home of Dr. Thompson, and that evening his 
little adopted daughter gave her a silver dollar, 
saying: "Miss Bennett, I have waited on the ta 
ble since you came and have earned this dollar. 
I heard you talk about how Jesus went about 
doing good, and I want to be like him. I am 
giving you my dollar to help you build the 
training school." This was seed planted that 
brought forth many hundredfold as the story 
of the little girl s gift was told. 

On the way home from Little Rock, Miss 
Bennett visited a friend in St. Louis and while 


there was urged to call upon one of the shut- 
in saints, who had been confined to her bed for 
long years. In telling of this visit, she says: 
"While in this upper chamber I told her the 
story of Little Rock and my thought of a 
training school. Putting her hand feebly 
under her pillow, she took out a small paper 
and drew from it a five-dollar gold piece, say 
ing: I have been waiting for the Lord to 
show me where he wanted me to put this, and 
now I know. 

This, too, was a seed corn that brought in 
a bountiful harvest. 

When Miss Bennett reached home there 
were two letters awaiting her, one containing 
a check from a gentleman in North Carolina 
and another from Mrs. Trueheart, asking that 
she attend with her a camp meeting which was 
being conducted at Park Hill Campground by 
the Rev. Sam Jones. She responded to the call 
and went at once. At Mr. Jones s earnest 
solicitation she presented her cause to a large 
audience. After she had finished he arose and 
pledged $500 for Mrs. Jones. He then said: 
"Miss Bennett, you and Mrs. Trueheart sit 
down here and let the people bring you their 
money." They crowded forward men, wom 
en, and children pledging from twenty-five 


cents to twenty-five dollars annually for five 
years, until they had given more than $1,000. 


Offers began to come from various cities 
bidding for the location of the school. Lou 
isville, Ky., made the first formal offer: a 
rented house in which to open at once and the 
promise of $15,000 and ground within a year. 
St. Louis offered a furnished house, rent free 
for five years, with promise of enlargement 
for future use. Other offers came from Mar 
tha Washington College, Abingdon, Va. ; Cen 
tral College, Lexington, Mo., by Dr. Pal- 
more; Asheville, N. C, through Mr. and Mrs. 
Ray; and the Nashville College for Young 
Ladies, through Drs. Kelley and Price. These 
kind offers each received due consideration, 
but the proposal which seemed most worth 
while came through a letter from Mrs. Isa 
bella Hendrix, mother of- Bishop Hendrix, and 
a member of the Woman s Board of Foreign 
Missions, saying that she had had a conversa 
tion with Dr. Nathan Scarritt, of Kansas City, 
in which he had made an offer of both money 
and land. Miss Bennett went at once to Kan 
sas City. She says of this visit: "On reach 
ing Kansas City I was met at the train by Dr. 


Scarritt and was a guest in his home for more 
than a week. On Sabbath evening Dr. Scarritt, 
Mrs. Scarritt, and myself walked over to the 
beautiful hilltop overlooking the bluffs of the 
Missouri River. While standing there, he 
said to me: If you like this, I will give you 
here whatever you think is necessary for the 
establishment of the school. Later he said: I 
will give you $25,000 provided you raise a 
like amount for the erection of the building. 


The Executive Committee of the Woman s 
Board of Foreign Missions accepted this gift 
and it became a great impetus to the enter 
prise. Miss Bennett toured the Church, pre 
senting the challenge to the people to make 
good the promised gift. She visited many of 
Sam Jones s meetings, where thousands of dol 
lars jwere subscribed. Churches were also 
visited, many of the invitations coming from 
the missionary women themselves. Miss Ben 
nett s request was always for just a few min 
utes of time at the close of the service. In 
describing her experiences, she says: "Wheth 
er I talked to individuals or audiences, gifts of 
money and subscriptions were made. At 
Greenville and Meridian, Miss., as I sat on the 


edge of the platform, men and women came 
up, took off their watches and other jewelry, 
and with money and subscriptions to the 
amount of more than $3,000 poured them into 
my lap." 

Mrs. M. D. Wightman was asked to assist 
Miss Bennett and was appointed Associate 
Agent. She worked with earnestness and zeal 
in the southeastern Conferences and secured 
something more than $11,000 of the funds 
turned over for building and endowment. In 
less than two years the full amount was se 
cured for the erection of the building. 

The difficulties and the triumph of the work 
are set forth in an extract from an address 
made by Dr. W. H. Potter at the time of the 
laying of the corner stone: 

The originator of the enterprise was appointed 
Financial Agent to raise the funds with which to start 
it. There was not a dollar in the treasury ; the mind 
of the Church respecting it was not known ; a female 
fiscal agent with connectional relations was a thing 
unknown to the Church ; yet with a heart strong in the 
Lord and in the conviction of a great duty she went 
forward. Her success under such circumstances has 
been so phenomenal as to convict of blindness those 
who could not see that God was with her. Miss Belle 
H. Bennett, of Richmond, Ky., the Financial Agent, 
deserves and will receive the thanks of this and many 
future generations for the inception and progress of 


this great work. No doubt she has already received 
the approval of her own conscience and her Lord. Miss 
Bennett has had many noble and worthy coadjutors, 
too many to be named here ; but her singular strength 
of purpose, her simple faith, and quiet courage gave 
heart and hope to them all. 


At the very height of success opposition 
arose, opposition so strong that it seemed for 
a time that the enterprise would be wrecked. 
Some of the men in official position opposed 
it bitterly, and many of the women feared 
lest its phenomenal success would be the un 
doing of the work which was already being 
carried on in the mission fields. The gift of 
Dr. Scarritt had already been accepted and 
the money raised to meet its requirements, but 
now the question arose as to the right to es 
tablish such a school under the constitution of 
the Woman s Board of Foreign Missions. 
The Board met in St. Louis in May, 1890, dur 
ing the session of the General Conference. 
Dr. Scarritt was present and was invited to 
speak. He told with emotion and tenderness 
the story of God s dealing with him. He said 
that while alone, walking about upon his estate, 
a voice seemed to speak to his soul, saying: 
"Why don t you give this land to the Worn- 


an s Missionary Society for the training 
school?" He had obeyed this voice and great 
ly regretted the delay. At this time he re 
newed the gift; and to remove the legal bar 
riers a memorial was sent to the General 
Conference, with the result that the constitu 
tion was so amended as to authorize the es 
tablishment of the school. On May 21, 1890, 
the Board met behind closed doors with the 
expressed intention, on the part of some, to 
ignore all previous action in regard to the 
school. Dr. Scarritt had gone home because 
of his serious illness and Bishop Hendrix was 
acting as his representative. After a heated dis 
cussion, a resolution was unanimously adopt 
ed accepting the gift of Dr. Scarritt. At the 
same time Dr. Scarritt, Rev. W. B. Palmore, 
and Miss Belle H. Bennett were appointed a 
building committee with authorization to pro 
ceed as rapidly as finances \vere available. 

The news of the acceptance of the gift was 
sent at once by telegram to Dr. Scarritt. The 
Board adjourned that night, and on the fol 
lowing day a message came acknowledging the 
receipt of the telegram and announcing that 
Dr. Scarritt had died on that morning (May 
22). A special meeting was called and reso 
lutions passed expressing sympathy and af- 


fection. At the same time the projected train 
ing school was named in honor of its gener 
ous benefactor. 

Two years later, in 1892, the Woman s 
Board of Foreign Missions met in Lexington, 
Ky. The progress of the school had been such 
that this became a time of great jubilation. 
The corner stone had been laid in July of 1891 
with due ceremony, and now the beautiful 
building was completed, and its doors were 
to be opened in September of that year. 

Miss Laura Haygood had been elected Prin 
cipal of the school, but had refused to be re 
leased from her work in China. In the mat 
ter of choosing the principal, however, as in 
that of the establishment of the school, there 
was an unmistakable evidence of divine guid 
ance, for God s choice lay in another direction. 
Miss Maria Layng Gibson was at that time 
Principal of a high-grade private school for 
young women in Covington, Ky., but at the 
earnest solicitation of the leaders of the new 
enterprise she consented to leave her own 
prosperous institution and become the head of 
the Training School. At this Lexington meet 
ing the Board of Managers nominated her as 
Principal and Miss Elizabeth Holding, of the 
Chicago Training School, as Bible teacher. 


These nominations were approved by the 
Woman s Board. Miss Emma D. Cushman 
was elected Superintendent of Nurses for the 
hospital department. 

Notwithstanding the phenomenal success of 
the enterprise, the Principal must have felt, 
as she entered upon her new task, that the 
battie had only begun. The building was 
beautiful and commodious, but for the most 
part it was still unfurnished. September was 
not far distant, and no effort had been made 
to secure a student body. In November, 1892, 
after speaking of the success that had crowned 
their first efforts, Miss Gibson writes: "And 
yet and yet, the one thing lacking is students. 
There has been no lack of applications, but 
our educational standard is high, and many 
have failed to meet the requirements." 

The school was dedicated on September 14, 
1892. Preliminary services were held in Mel- 
rose Church, addresses being delivered by 
Bishop Galloway, Bishop Hendrix, Dr. George 
Halley, by Miss Elizabeth Holding, Bible 
teacher, and by the Principal. After the serv 
ices the entire congregation proceeded to the 
beautiful memorial chapel of the Training 
School, where the building was delivered to 
Bishop Hendrix, President of the Board of 


Managers, by Judge E. L. Scarritt, on behalf 
of the Trustees. 

Concerning the first opening, a member of 
the school writes under the above date: 

We had a beautiful day for our opening. The sun 
shone warm and bright, fairly enticing people out of 
doors. Melrose Church was crowded. The addresses 
were delivered in the church ; and then the friends came 
over to our beautiful chapel, where the dedicatory serv 
ices were held. Hundreds of people viewed the build 
ing after the services, and about sixty took lunch with 
us. Last night we were filled with dismay, for we 
really feared we should open without a single student ; 
but about eight o clock Miss Tina Tucker, from Ken 
tucky, arrived. This morning, just before we started 
for the church, two others came Miss Sharp, from 
Missouri, and Miss Irene Shaw, from Texas. Our 
spirits rose accordingly, and when we mustered the 
family and started for the church we felt that we made 
quite a showing. We had often heard that "three was 
a crowd," but had never had such a practical illustra 
tion of it before. Our pretty guest chamber, furnished 
by the ladies of Centenary Church, Kansas City, was 
occupied last night by our dear Miss Bennett and her 
efficient secretary, Miss Crook. These ladies, with Miss 
Lucinda Helm, arrived yesterday morning. We are 
without gas, owing to some misunderstanding about 
laying the pipes. We have a number of lamps, but not 
a sufficient number to dispel the darkness in these great 
halls. Of course, Miss Bennett could not wait until 
morning before viewing the building. We all followed 
in the wake as she and Miss Gibson made the grand 
tour ; and, although our lamp had a good Rochester 
burner, yet it made little impres sion on the darkness 


around, and our procession was rather ghostly. The 
day was a full one, and we were all tired at supper ; 
nevertheless, we went to prayer meeting at Melrose and 
felt that it must be a good omen for us to spend the 
first evening of our school life at a prayer meeting. 

The enrollment in the Bible department 
that year numbered five resident students and 
seven from Kansas City and vicinity. 

The first ten years marked a steady growth 
in the life and usefulness of the school. In the 
spring of 1894 the first commencement ex 
ercises were held. Miss Layona Glenn, under 
appointment to Brazil, was the first graduate 
from the Bible department. Miss Clara Ste- 
ger and Miss Ella R. Coffey, after one year of 
training, were sent to China that year. At the 
close of the ten years the school had repre 
sentatives in the mission fields as follows: 
Brazil, n; China, 13; Mexico, 8; Cuba, 10; 
Korea, 3; Japan, I. 

The nurse-training department, too, had 
given ministry at home and abroad. The total 
number of patients receiving treatment during 
that period numbered 1,617, and thirty-five 
nurses had been graduated. 

In a report dated 1902 Miss Gibson says: 

Three representatives of the nurse-training depart 
ment are engaged in foreign work. Miss Helen Me- 


Intosh, who came from Scotland to enter this school 
for training as a missionary nurse, after graduation 
offered herself to the Presbyterian Board and was ap 
pointed to India as superintendent of a hospital. An 
other graduate, Miss Mary Wood, of Virginia, is in 
the mission field as the wife of the Rev. J. A. G. Ship 
ley, a missionary under the General Board of Missions 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. A notable 
representative is our former superintendent of nurses, 
Miss Emma D. Cushman, now in charge of a hospital 
at Talas, Csesarea. While a young girl she was con 
verted, and, being much interested in missions and very 
desirous of becoming a nurse, she made a vow that if 
God would open the way for her to secure training 
she would devote her life to him as a missionary nurse. 
The way opened almost immediately, and she entered 
the hospital, where she graduated. When her training 
was ended, however, she was not ready to fulfill her 
vow. Ten years later the call of God came again ; and 
she made haste to answer, resigned her position as Su 
perintendent of our hospital department, and sailed 
from New York on the steamer Majestic on July 26, 

Early in its history the Training School ex 
perienced an overwhelming sorrow in the 
death of Miss Elizabeth Holding, who had al 
ready proved herself a great teacher of the 
Word and a friend of every student in the 
school. Miss Effie Thompson was elected to 
the Bible chair, but served only one year, when 
Mrs. Mary Lipscomb Hargrove began a term 
of service which continued for twenty years. 

In 1896 Miss Bennett and Mrs. Wightman 


resigned as agents of the Training School. 
Miss Bennett transferred the books from her 
office at Richmond, Ky., to the training school, 
and Miss Elizabeth Billingsley was elected by 
the Board of Managers to take charge of these 
accounts. This position she continued to hold 
until 1919, at which time she retired because 
of ill health. 


In 1902 the deaconess office was authorized 
by the General Conference, and the Woman s 
Board of Home Missions entered upon a new 
era in its work of city missions. Large num 
bers of home mission candidates were present 
ing themselves to the school for training. This 
necessitated the closing of the hospital depart 
ment in 1905 in order to make room for the 
enlarged Bible department. 

In 1903 the chair of sociology was estab 
lished, to which Miss Mabel Katherine Howell 
was elected. This was a new departure for the 
school and naturally led to the enlargement of 
its usefulness. 

In 1910 Miss Henrietta Libby Gay was 
elected as teacher of religious pedagogy, and 
in 1916 Miss Ida Shaffer was appointed to 
teach Portuguese to applicants expecting to 


work in Brazil. Later, the scope of Miss Shaf 
fer s duties were enlarged by her appointment 
to the chair of Church history. Thus was 
completed for the students a thorough and 
rounded curriculum including courses in Bible, 
sociology, Church history, religious peda 
gogy, and training in practical efficiency. 

In the years which followed, the school en 
joyed a season of unusual prosperity, sending 
to both the home and foreign fields larger 
numbers of workers than ever before. In 
1915, however, it passed through a great finan 
cial loss which threatened its very existence. 
In 1895 Miss Bennett and Mrs. Wightman 
turned into the hands of the treasurer of the 
Board of Managers $52,394.58 for the endow 
ment fund. The Conferences added to this 
fund by collecting $20,000 for a chair named 
in honor of Miss Belle H. Bennett, and eleven 
lectureships at $5,000 each. There were, in 
addition, nineteen endowed scholarships and 
a small Student Loan Fund.* 

The interest on these funds was used for the 
payment of teachers salaries and for the 
maintenance of the students preparing for mis- 

*See pages 253-55 for list of Lectureships and 


sionary service. The major part of this total 
endowment was lost through embezzelment 
on the part of a man to whom these funds 
had been intrusted in all good faith. This 
was a great disaster; for, while some appro 
priation was being made by the Council, the 
school was largely dependent upon its vested 
funds. It seemed, for the time, that the insti 
tution must close; but friends in Kansas City 
and vicinity came to the rescue and provided 
a sustentation fund, which enabled the school 
to continue until the close of the scholastic 
year. This was a practical token of the ap 
preciation of the worth of the school to its 
neighbors. At the Council of that year action 
was taken which made good the loss of the 
interest accruing from the endowment fund. 

The news had gone abroad in some quarters 
that the endowment was lost and that the 
school would close. About this time, also, the 
educational standards for missionaries were 
raised, and, in addition to this, the Council de 
cided to consider all scholarships merely as a 
loan to the students using them. This com 
bination of circumstances made the two years 
which followed the most trying and difficult 
in all the history of the school. The student 
body was diminished to almost half of that 


which it had formerly been. However, the 
public learned that the Council was standing 
solidly behind the school ; the Council came to 
see the lack of wisdom in sending its mis 
sionaries out burdened with a heavy debt and 
changed its ruling concerning the use of schol 
arships. With the removal of these hindrances 
and the new call throughout the Church for 
life service recruits, the institution soon en 
tered upon a renewed and enlarged life of use 


The twenty-fifth anniversary, which was 
celebrated at the commencement season of 
1917, was a crowning event in its history. The 
occasion was marked by the presentation of a 
beautiful pageant called the "Spirit of Scar- 
ritt." In the prologue the Spirit of Scarritt 
gave a short history of the origin and work of 
the school. This was followed in Part II by 
a representation of the life and work of the 
institution, while Part III presented the "Spir 
it" of Scarritt through the lives of its gradu 
ates serving in the mission field. 

The alumnae on Alumnae Day paid tribute 
to the great moving spirit which had for twen 
ty-five years guided and molded the school, 


making its name honored throughout the earth. 
Miss Gibson had from the beginning poured 
out her life in loving, sacrificial service. Her 
deep personal interest in every woman who 
left the school had caused her influence to reach 
throughout the bounds of -the entire Church at 
home and on the foreign field ; and at this time 
hundreds of her thousand daughters now gird 
ling the globe with their beautiful ministry 
paid homage by their presence, letter, or tele 
gram both to their Alma Mater and to her 
whom they counted as their spiritual mother. 
As an expression of appreciation she was pre 
sented with a beautiful silver plate upon which 
was engraved a picture of the building, and a 
silver sandwich plate given by a group of 
nurses, former graduates from the hospital. 
Another happy surprise came to her with the 
uncovering of three hundred bright silver dol 
lars, a love offering of the alumnae. This 
amount, \vhich was afterwards increased, she 
accepted as a trust fund to be used for some 
future need of the school. 


In 1916 Miss Mabel Howell, teacher of 
sociology, was elected by the Council to the 
office of the Executive Secretarv of the Ori- 


ental Fields ; and the Bible teacher, Mrs. Mary 
Lipscomb Hargrove, was elected to represent 
the Woman s Missionary Council as their Cen 
tenary Secretary. Miss Gibson, at this same 
time, asked to be released from the increasing 
executive burdens and offered her resignation. 
This made faculty changes necessary. These 
circumstances, together with the new demand 
for the new age, led to steps on the part of the 
Council for the enlargment of plans concerning 
the school. More and more it was becoming 
urgent to secure a force large enough to keep 
the institution before the Church; and to this 
end, Dr. Ed F. Cook, formerly Foreign Sec 
retary for the Board of Missions, was elected 
President, while Miss Maria Layng Gibson 
was retained as Principal. Miss Sophia Gleim 
succeeded Miss Howell as teacher of sociology 
for one year only, when Prof. A. M. Tra- 
wick, who had had a long and valuable experi 
ence in this special field, was elected to the 
place. Miss Mabel Roberta Carter was elect 
ed to the Bible chair, and in 1919 Miss Mary 
Ora Durham was appointed a member of the 
faculty as director of practical methods. At 
the beginning of this new era, the school al 
ready numbered four hundred and thirty grad 
uates, and three hundred and twelve students 


were serving actively in every mission field 
that had been entered by the Church. In the 
year 1919-20 an enrollment of seventy-one stu 
dents was reached. At the meeting of the 
Board of Directors that year plans were pro 
jected for the securing of a charter which 
would give to the institution college rank, 
thereby granting it the power to confer de 

The new President, Dr. Ed F. Cook, says 
concerning the larger program and the for 
ward look: 

The women of the missionary societies have become 
responsible for the ministry of our Methodism to the 
women of seven great mission fields and for the greater 
share of the Church s home mission program. We 
would urge upon their attention, therefore, the place 
of fundamental importance held by the Scarritt Bible 
and Training School, which alone among the institu 
tions of Southern Methodism provides that highly spe 
cialized, postgraduate training which will enable our 
missionaries at home and abroad to fill acceptably a 
place in the missionary enterprise of to-morrow. In 
ever-increasing numbers the young women of the 
Church, under the impulse of the new call to sacri 
ficial service, will respond to the demand of the Church 
for workers. The school is now full to capacity. The 
Council must enlarge the plant and the program in 
order to meet the insistent demands already crowding 
upon us. 

For the glorious service rendered in the past by the 
Scarritt Bible and Training School we are truly grate- 


ful. A new day, however, has dawned. The new 
world is bringing a new challenge to the womanhood 
of America through a call to greater service. We 
must face the future and prepare for even greater 
things. The first requisite is an adequate supply of 
missionaries well prepared for the more difficult and 
exacting tasks awaiting them in an awakening and 
tumultuous world. 

The Scarritt Bible and Training School, enlarged, 
equipped, and builded into a great training center, is 
at once our hope and the answer of Southern Meth 
odist womanhood to the challenge of the new day. 


The Frances Bumpass, contributed by the North 
Carolina and Western North Carolina Conference So 

The Morgan Calloway, contributed by the North 
Georgia Conference Society. 

The Hannah Lithgow, contributed by the daughters 
of J. S. Lithgow, Louisville, Ky. 

The Kavanaugh, contributed by the Louisville Con 
ference Society. 

The Steven Noland, contributed by the Kentucky 
Conference Society. 

The Bishop W. M. Wightman, contributed by the 
South Carolina Conference Society. 

The Stephen Olin, contributed by the South Caro 
lina Conference Society. 

The Maria D. Wightman, Woman s Foregin Mis 
sionary Society. 

The S. C. Trueheart, Woman s Foreign Missionary 

The Fannie M. Hitch, contributed by the South Geor 
gia Conference Society. 


The Musselman Sisters, contributed by Miss Harriet 


The Avis Scholarship, contributed by the St. Louis 
Conference Society. 

The Melisa Baker Scholarship, contributed by the 
Baltimore Conference Society. 

The Mary A. Bonnell Scholarship, contributed by 
the North Georgia Conference Society. 

The Harriett Colquitt Boring Scholarship , con 
tributed by the North Georgia Conference Society. 

The Alice Culler Cobb Scholarship, contributed by 
the South Georgia Conference Society. 

The Helen Finlay Scholarship, contributed by the 
North Mississippi Conference Society. 

The Sam Jones Scholarship, contributed by the Ken 
tucky Conference Society. 

The Virginia K. Johnson Scholarship, contributed 
by the North Texas Conference Society. 

The Fannie Montague Scholarship, contributed by 
the Missouri Conference Society. 

The Memorial Scholarship, contributed by friends 
in many Conferences. 

The Weyman Potter Scholarship, contributed by the 
South Georgia Conference Society. 

The Ellen J. Robinson Scholarship, contributed by 
the North Texas Confernce Society. 

The S. Myra Smith Scholarship, contributed by the 
North Mississippi Conference Society. 

The Tennessee Scholarship, contributed by the Ten 
nessee Conference Society. 

The Texas Scholarship, contributed by the Texas 
Conference Society. 

The Carrie Steele Waterhouse Scholarship, con 
tributed by the Holston Conference Society. 


The Lula G. Watkins Scholarship, contributed by 
the Mississippi Conference Society. 

The Houston-Steger Scholarship, contributed by Mr. 
and Mrs. W. J. Houston. 

The Susan N. Jones Scholarship, contributed by the 
Southwest Missouri Conference Society.